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Rego , Bruno C. Hames , Kahio T. Mazon , and Jan-Ole Joswig. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 1 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry A , 51 , Wallis , Enric Canadell , and Narcis Avarvari. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 45 , Kim , Rajesh R. Naik , Tiffany R. Allan , J. Inorganic Chemistry , 52 6 , Inorganic Chemistry , 52 4 , Hoff , Robson da Silva , and Luis G. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation , 8 8 , Inorganic Chemistry , 51 13 , Garcia-Garibay , and Patrick Batail.

Journal of the American Chemical Society , 18 , Dube , and Richard T. Robertson , Bruce C. Noll , Charles F. Campana , Judith A. Howard , Paul A. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 4 , Hoff , Robson Silva , and Luis G. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 31 , Martini , Robert C. Crabtree , and Victor S. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 23 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 48 , Cardamone and George Kirczenow.

Nano Letters , 10 4 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 8 , Freire , Robert C. Snoeberger and Victor S. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 2 , Inorganic Chemistry , 48 23 , Leitch , Xueyang Yu , Stephen M.

Winter , Richard A. Secco , Paul A. Dube and Richard T. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 20 , Robertson , Alicea A. Leitch , Kristina Cvrkalj , Daniel J. Myles , Robert W. Reed , Paul A. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 44 , Inorganic Chemistry , 47 21 , Leitch , Kristina Cvrkalj , Robert W. Reed , Daniel J. Myles , Paul A. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 26 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 28 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 11 , Chibotaru,, Sergiu Clima, and, Marius Andruh.

Inorganic Chemistry , 47 3 , Inorganic Chemistry , 47 2 , Chemistry of Materials , 19 25 , Inorganic Chemistry , 46 21 , Leitch,, Richard T. Oakley,, Robert W. Reed, and, Laurence K. Inorganic Chemistry , 46 16 , Leitch,, Robert W. Reed,, Craig M. Robertson,, James F.

Britten,, Xueyang Yu,, Richard A. Secco, and, Richard T. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 25 , Inorganic Chemistry , 46 11 , Inorganic Chemistry , 46 1 , Brusso,, Shahab Derakhshan,, Mikhail E. Itkis,, Holger Kleinke,, Robert C. Haddon,, Richard T. Reed,, John F. Richardson,, Craig M. Robertson, and, Laurence K. Inorganic Chemistry , 45 26 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 33 , Madalan,, Victor Ch.

Kravtsov,, Yurii A. Organometallics , 24 2 , Organometallics , 23 25 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry B , 31 , Ammar,, M. Villesuzanne,, S. Matar,, B. Chevalier, and, J. Etourneau, , G. Villeneuve, , J. Koo, , A. Smirnov and, M. Inorganic Chemistry , 43 16 , Britten,, Owen P. Clements,, Robert C.

Haddon,, Mikhail E. Itkis,, Kristin M. Matkovich,, Richard T. Oakley, and, Robert W. Chemistry of Materials , 16 8 , Curreli,, P. Deplano,, M. Mercuri,, L. Pilia,, A. Serpe,, John A. Schlueter,, Michael A. Whited,, Urs Geiser,, E. Coronado,, C. Inorganic Chemistry , 43 6 , Britten,, Jaclyn L. Brusso,, A. Wallace Cordes,, Robert C. Itkis,, Douglas S. MacGregor,, Richard T.

Reed, and, Craig M. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 47 , Ferreira, and, Luis F. Organometallics , 22 24 , Inorganic Chemistry , 41 25 , Mas-Torrent,, E. Ribera,, V. Tkacheva,, I. Mata,, E. Molins,, J. Vidal-Gancedo,, S.

Khasanov,, L. Zorina,, R. Shibaeva,, R. Wojciechowski,, J. Intille, Louis Lopez, Kent Larson. Anthony J. Nicholson, Ian E. Smith, Jeff Hughes, Brian D. Scalability in a Secure Distributed Proof System. Anind K. Shwetak N. Patel, Jun Rekimoto, Gregory D. Elaine M. Huang, Elizabeth D. Mynatt, Jay P. Stephen S. Beaudin, Pallavi Kaushik, Jason Nawyn et al.

Back Matter. About these proceedings Keywords DOM WiFi ad-hoc networking ambient intelligence biometrics communications security context-aware computing data security distributed systems intelligent interfaces location-aware services mobile computing privacy security trust.

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Acceptable for public water supply with appropriate treatment. Suitable for agricultural and certain industrial cooling and process uses; excellent fish and wildlife habitat; excellent aesthetic value. Sludge deposits, solid refuse, floating solids, oils, grease, and scum 3. None in such concentrations that would impair any usages specifically to this class.

None in such concentrations that would impair any usages specifically assigned to this class and none that would cause taste and odor in edible fish. Radioactivity None in concentrations or combinations which would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic life for the appropriate water use..

None in such concentrations which would result in radio-nuclide concentrations in aquatic life "which would exceed the recommended limits for consumption by humans, Ammonia Not to exceed an average of 0. Phenols Shall not exceed 0. Class C - Suitable for recreational boating; habitat for wildlife and common food and game fishes indigenous to the region; certain industrial cooling and process uses; under some conditions acceptable for public water supply with appropriate treatment.

Suitable for irrigation of crops used for consumption after cooking. Good aesthetic value. Sludge deposits, solid None allowable except those amounts that may result from the discharge from refuse, floating solids, waste treatment facilities providing appropriate treatment.

Color and turbidity None allowable in such concentrations that would impair any usages speci- fically assigned to this class, 4. Coliform bacteria None in such concentrations that would impair any usage specifically assigned to this class. Chemical constituents 9. Radioactivity Total phosphate Ammonia Phenols None in such concentrations that would impair any usage specifically assigned to this class, and none that would cause taste and odor to edible fish.

None in concentrations or combinations which would be harmful or offensive to human or aquatic life or any water use specifically assigned to this class. None in concentrations or combinations which would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic life for the appropriate water use. None in such concentrations which would result in radio-nuclide concentrations in aquatic life which exceed the recommended limits for consumption by humans. Not to exceed an average of 0.

Class D - Suitable for aesthetic enjoyment, power, navigation and certain industrial cooling and process uses. Class D waters will be assigned only where a higher water use class cannot be attained after all appropriate waste treatment methods are utilized. None allowable except those amounts that may result from the discharge from waste treatment facilities. Coliform bacteria 5. Radioactivity None in such concentrations that would impair any usages specifically assigned to this class.

None in such concentrations that would impair any usages specifically assigned to this class. None in such concentrations that would impair any usages specifically assigned to this class, 6,0 - 9. None in concentrations or combinations which would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic life for the designated water use.

None in such concentrations or combinations which would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic life for the designated water use. None in such concen- trations which will result in radio-nuclide concentration in aquatic life which exceed the recommended limits for consumption by humans.

As stated in Chapter I, the average daily wastewater flows estimated for are mgd for Nut Island and mgd for Deer Island. The sludge facilities are designed to handle raw primary sludge and waste activated sludge for the combined flow of mgd. Nut Island Plant: Raw primary sludge will go direct to sludge storage tanks. Waste activated sludge will be thickened by dissolved air flotation with the thickened sludge being pumped to the sludge storage tanks.

An enlarged pumping facility will be provided to pump the mixed sludge to the Deer Island plant. The existing sludge disposal pipeline will be extended to the Deer Island site, and a new parallel sludge force main will be constructed from Nut Island to Deer Island. This parallel facility is required to provide standby capability in case of pipeline outage for repair or cleaning. Primary effluent will be used as a source of air-charged water for dissolved air flotation, and the liquid effluent from this process will be returned to the head of the plant.

The contents of the sludge storage tanks will be mixed and no recycle from these tanks is planned. Outside electric power will be required when the Nut Island plant is expanded to secondary treatment, and when anaerobic digestion and the recovery of digester gas is abandoned. Deer Island Plant: Deer Island facilities represent a complete wastewater treatment plant assuming primary and secondary treatment, and sludge disposal.

The existing gravity thickeners will provide for thickening of about one-half of the raw primary sludge in the design year. It is recommended that these units be continued in service at optimum loading, but that no new gravity thickeners be constructed.

Consequently, about one-half of the primary sludge will go to the sludge storage tanks without thickening. The combined sludges from both plants will be mixed and be sent to the sludge disposal facilities as a single sludge flow. Sludge will be chemically conditioned with ferric chloride and lime or polymers and delivered to vacuum filters for dewatering.

The dewatered cake will be discharged by conveyor into multiple hearth furnaces for incineration. Grit and screenings from the remote sites will be trucked to the Deer Island Sludge Disposal Building for incineration and disposal along with sludge cake. Ash from the incineration process will be pumped in slurry form to on-site ash lagoons for storage and dewatering. Periodically approximately every two years ash will be hauled from the site for ultimate disposal of this inert material by sanitary landfill.

Waste heat from the incineration process will be recovered for production of electrical energy. Steam will be produced in waste heat boilers by recovering heat from the incinerator exhaust gases. This steam will be used in turbine generators and is capable of producing approximately one-half of the power demand for the Deer Island plant. Outside electric power supply should be provided for the remaining load and for standby. Loadings are for average day conditions in unless otherwise noted.

Nut Island 1. Flotation Thickeners No. Sludge Pumping to Deer Island No. Gravity Thickeners Existing No. Solids Loading Vacuum Filters No. Incinerators No. Turbine Generators No. These computations were computerized, and for information of the reader, a typical heat balance computation is presented in Appendix F.

The costs presented here are based on current price levels. The electrification of raw sewage pumps at Deer Island has been included in this tabulation; earlier in this study it was shown that the operation of raw sewage pump engines was uneconomical, therefore, electrification of these pumps is included. Table VII-3 presents total annual costs for the recommended plan. Endangered Fish Contd. Biddulphia aurita Chaetoceros decipiens Chaetoceros debilis Coscinodiscus centralis Cylindrotheca closterium Detonula confervacea Fragilaria sp.

Gyrosigma sp. Melosira sp. Nitzschia seriata Pediastrum sp. Pleurosigma sp. Porosira glacialis Scenedesmus sp. Pherusa plumosa Nereis virens Nereis pelagica Lycastopsis pontica Harmothoe imbricata Lepidonotus squamatus Arabella iricolor Spirorbis spirillum Orbinia sp.

Polinices sp. Chaetoceros compressus Chaetoceros debilis Chaetoceros decipiens Chaetoceros sooialis Corethon hystrix Coseinodisaus eentralis Cosainodi-scus excentr-Lous Cosainosira sp. Evoampia sp. Guinardia flaecida Lavderia sp. Leptocylindrus danicus Leptocylindrus minimus Melosira sulcata Nitzschia alosterium Nitzsehia seriata Rhizosolenia alata Rhizosolenia fragilissima Rhizosolenia hebetata Rhizosolenia setigera Skeletonema costatwn Thalassionema nitzschioides Thalassiosira deoipiens Thalassiosira gravida Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii Thalassiothrix sp.

Euphausia krohnii Meganyctiphanes norregica Thysanopoda aoutifrons Amphipods Euthemists sp. Hyperia sp. Hyperoche sp. Parathemisto oblivia Chaetognatha Sagitta elegans S. Pherusa affinis Serpula sp. Nephtys squamosa Nephtys inoisa Earmothoe sp.

Sternaspis sp. Amphitrite sp. Magelona papillicomis Polydora sp. Olivella adelae Crepidula plana Cithna tennella Adeorbis umbilioatus Neptunea sp. Scaphander sp. Dendronotus sp. Actinocythereis dawsoni vineyardensis Bensonacythere arenicola Bythocythere sp.

A Cushmanidea seminuda Cushmanidea ulrichi Cytheridea sp. A Cytheropteron pyramidale Cytherura wardensis Cytherura pseudostriata Cytheretta edwardsi Cytheretta sahnii Finmarchinella finmarchica Leptocythere angusta Loxoconcha impressa sperata Muellerina oanadensis Neolooophocythere sp. Eudorella emarginata Leptoeuma sp. Oxyurostylis smithi Leuoon ameri. Caprella linearis Caprella unioa Caprella penantis Caprella equilibra Platyisohnopus sp.

Maera sp. Paraphoxus sp. Siphonoeoetes Neohaustoris schmitzi Aoanthohaustorius millsi Haustorius sp. Ophiopholis sp. Ophiacantha sp. Amphilimna sp. Numbers at the top of the columns correspond to fisheries statistical areas located on Figure K-l.

Light concentration on Georges Bank. Heavy concentrations Near Nova Scotia. Moderate con- centrations in the Gulf of Maine and on the western side of Nova Scotia. Abundant along the northern edge of Georges Bank and in the Gulf of Maine. Abundant south of Cape Cod.

Abundant along the inshore waters north of Cape Cod and southeast of Nova Scotia. Abundant from the eastern side of Georges Bank southward to Hudson Canyon. Abundant off the coast of Massachusetts and Maine and southeast of Nova Scotia. Abundant south of Cape Cod to Hudson Canyon. Abundant in the deep waters of the Gulf of Maine and southeast of Nova Scotia. Abundant on Georges Bank and southeast of Cape Cod. Abundant along the northern edge of Georges Bank. Military engineer Sylvanus Thayer was responsible for the plan and construction of Fort Warren.

Built mainly of Quincy granite, the defense work was a bastioned star fort with other walls eight feet thick and six hundred feet long. The Fort was twice modernized after the Civil War when it was a prison for Confederate leaders. Inside the Fort's wall is a brick magazine and outside is a 2- story late 19th c. The entire island is forty acres and located in the middle of Boston Harbor. Except for a somewhat earlier defense set up on Fort Hill in the southern end of Boston, Castle Island is the oldest fortified site in the original Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Its year history came to an end in , when the Federal government ceded the area of Fort Independence back to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for use as an historic monument. The Slade Spice Mill is one of the two remaining mills in Massachusetts which were tide powered. It used one of the earliest of the horizontal turbine wheels, powered by the release of dammed water dependent on tidal action to turn the mill-stones each day.

Some of the original machinery remains and the mill is still used for grinding and mixing spices. The present 3-story frame mill is the fourth on the site, replacing three earlier structures which were destroyed by fire. Fort Revere, named for Paul Revere, is the enlarged and modernized fort which was originally called Fort Independence. It has not been used as a coastal battery since the end of W.

II when it was sold for development of homes and a school. The French fleet anchored in Nantasket Roads in the fall of and stationed a detachment of marines at Fort Independence. The presence at the fort of such notables as Heath, du Portail, de Bougainville, de Maresquelle, and others, underscores the significance of Fort Independence.

Of the original 77 acre fort, only a 10 acre section comprising the center of the fort remains. As part of the Fort Revere complex, the Water Tower served a three-fold purpose. It was used as an observation tower as well as a water tower by the soldiers stationed there through W. From the top of this ' structure, the entire Boston Harbor area can be readily seen.

Additionally, the tower has been, and still is, an important navigational landmark enabling both seagoing and airborne pilots to quickly orientate themselves in the Harbor area. It marks the area of the 19th c. In the early 's this hill was the seat of the sachem Chicatabot of the Massachusetts Indians. Shaped like an arrowhead which in the Indian dialect is mos or mons , the hummock or wetuset , as slightly altered in pronunciation by the white man, gave rise to the name Massachusetts.

Today the hill is still bounded by the sea where the Indians fished, by the marshes that served as a defense, and by the original planting grounds of the tribe. Adams National Historic Site commemorates four generations of the distinguished Adams family, who occupied the house from to James His son, Henry Adams, historian and man of letters, is best known for his auto- biography, The Education of Henry Adams.

A younger son, Brooks Adams, was the last of the family to occupy the "Old House". A stone library, stable and extensive gardens are other notable features. Included in the Historic American Buildings Survey. Hull Village is the oldest part of Hull where the first settlers came from Plymouth in Town meetings were held in this portion of Hull Village from about to about when the present Municipal Building was built. It is the oldest part of Hull and still retains the atmosphere and the structures which we revere in American history, because it gives visual reality to the writings of our illustrious historians.

Residence of Joseph P. Kennedy, father of the late President John F. One of the few surviving good examples of 17th c. Deane Winthrop, the son of Governor Winthrop, lived here until The following locations are part of the Boston National Historical Park.

These areas are also keyed to Figure for location purposes. It burned in and was rebuilt 2 years later. The present building is the result of architect Charles Bulfinch's enlargement of the structure in Market stalls occupied the first floor, while the hall above was used for Boston town meetings and the discussions that led James Otis to call it the "Cradle of Liberty". The oldest military company in North America, the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, has its armory and museum on the third floor.

Paul Revere's House Built about after one of the great fires of Boston, this is the oldest frame dwelling left in the city. It was constructed on the original site of Rev. Increase Mather's house and was the home of Paul Revere from to Paul Revere, on the night of April 18, , began his famous ride to Lexington from this house. This prearranged signal was intended to give the Charlestown militia warning of the British march toward Lexington and Concord, even if Paul Revere should be captured.

This is the oldest church building still standing in Boston. The world's first gallery where the public could watch government in action was established in this building as a result of a motion by James Otis in the Massachusetts House in In the Declaration of Independence was read for the first time in Boston from the eastern balcony.

On hearing of Gage's plan, the colonial forces decided to occupy Charlestown peninsula and fortify Breed's Hill. Although the British won the ensuing battle, they suffered heavy losses. In this building on the night after the Boston Massacre in March , Bostonians waited until Governor Thomas Hutchinson promised to remove British regiments from Boston. On December 16, , participants in another town meeting dispersed to Griffin's Wharf to carry out the famous Boston Tea Party.

Here in one of the first two dry docks in the country began operation. The first ship to enter the dock was the U. This frigate helped drive French privateers from the American coast and the West Indies in the s and became famous for her actions in the War of Winthrop Regional System Winthrop is serviced primarily by two regional highway facilities, U. Route 1.

A regional state highway running in a north-south direction, provides access to the south and Boston proper by means of the Sumner-Callahan Tunnels, as well as access to the northern communities of Saugus, Lynn- field, etc.

Route 1 is also the major highway servicing Logan Airport. Three major expressway facilities originate in Boston proper and service communities north of Boston. Route 1 is the easterlymost facility, with Interstate 95 and Interstate 93 being the other facilities. The following table, taken from the TAMS report indicates the daily traffic flow on the prin- cipal streets within the Town. Street APT 1. Main Street 25, - 3, 2.

Revere Street 16, - 10, 3. Winthrop Parkway 12, 4. Pleasant Street 9, - 5, 5. Pauline Street 8, - 3, 6. Winthrop Street 7, - less than 2, 8. Crest Avenue 6, 9. Shirley Street 6, - less than 2, Walden Street 4, - 3, Pleasant Street, which is part of the designated truck route, is a narrow two-lane facility with parked vehicles encountered throughout its length. Land use along its entire length is primarily residential.

That report documented the current transportation deficiencies and addressed a series of program options that might be developed. Of these options, the only one under serious consideration today is the Revere Beach Connector. Another project directly relating to Winthrop was the Winthrop Connector, which would have provided a third access road servicing Winthrop.

However, this project has been terminated. The Southeast Expressway carries approximately , to , vehicles per day. It is a six-lane limited access freeway. It is the only major access facility connecting Boston and communities to the south. The roadway is under constant maintenance and is the most accident-prone roadway in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Route 3A is the other primary State number route. It continues through Quincy, con- necting Weymouth, Hingham and other communities to the South.

The Hancock Street section of Route 3A functions as a two- lane bi-directional roadway with parking permitted along both sides. Traffic along this route is interrupted with a non-interconnected system of outdated traffic signals. Con- siderable amounts of bus and truck traffic were observed along Route 3A further disrupting traffic flow through the section. Land use along the entire section varies.

Along Hancock Street, the use is mixed manufacturing, retail and residential. The section of the Southern Artery between Sea Street and Hancock Street is mostly park land, with the remaining section consisting of varies retail use, including drive-in restaurants, gas stations, etc. Much of the street network throughout Quincy is in dire need of improvement, as discussed in the TAMS priority pack- age program. South Shore Regional Plans There are no major regional plans in terms of new road- way in the Quincy vicinity.

Various studies are being made concerning ways of improving operations along the Southeast Expressway. Reversible lanes and provision of an additional lane in each direction have been previously discussed. No immediate plans are expected.

In addition to these sources of data, comparisons have been made with gen- eral sludge quality data from other sources. In each of the following sections, the future quantity and quality of treat- ment plant emissions will be developed. The emissions of solid wastes and liquid effluents will be addressed together because of the interrelationship of these two areas. Quantity of Solid and Liquid Emissions Development of quality and quantity of sludges and liquid emissions for each of the alternatives will begin with the ex- pected characteristics of sludges entering the process stream.

This will be followed by the balance of liquid and solid frac- tions involved in the dewatering process, with the quantities and concentrations of solid and liquid process streams for each alternative developed as the last point. The process stream quantities developed by Havens and Emerson were the starting point for the development of quality and quantity of process streams.

In the absence of concrete information this assumption is conserva- tive. The Havens and Emerson report in- cluded an increase in primary solids recovery at Deer Island with the installation of additional primary settling facilities. This would be necessitated by the increase of plant flows to reach design capacity by The same increase in efficiency can occur because of elimination of inflow of seawater from existing tide gates.

The MDC is pursuing an active program of reconstruction and inspection of these tide gates, so the assumption of increased solids capture is reasonable although not necessarily for the reasons stated by Havens and Emerson. In Section I. B, this assumption is investigated.

The conclusion is that bypassing may be unnecessary, but full-scale operational testing is required to confirm this. This would lead to a lower projection of future sludge quantities. In the future, organic polymers may be considered. Use of low weight organic polymers would lead to a reduction in projected future sludge quanti- ties.

For these reasons, the projections of sludge quantities for , as developed by Havens and Emerson, are conservative for planning and design. An area not considered explicitly by the MDC in development of the Phase I project is the question of grit, screenings and skimmings quantities to be processed.

Table N-l includes a summary of data on grit, screenings and skimmings collected during recent years from the Deer Island collection headworks and the Deer and Nut Island treatment plants. The grit quanti- ties from the headworks and from Deer Island are lower in recent periods than formerly, possibly indicating that more care is being taken with sewer system maintenance. It is assumed that the quantities of grit and skimmings are directly proportional to population and population growth.

Therefore, increases in population should result in increases in grit and skimmings. While these factors tend to cause an overestimation of the quantities of primary sludge, the differences in estimated waste loadings can be compensated for by including the minor waste streams grit, screenings and skimmings , which eventu- ally bring the total quantity of wastes up to the levels pro- jected by Havens and Emerson.

One exception to this is the quantity of grit screenings, which cannot be disposed of with- out incineration. There is an existing multiple hearth incin- erator at Nut Island 36 tons per day design capacity , which could be used to burn grit and screenings for either the ocean disposal or land application alternatives.

Disposal of ash generated in this manner would be via the mechanism chosen for the major sludge disposal alternative. With this addition, the quantities of sludge and ash to be disposed or applied in should be similar to the quantities estimated by Havens and Emerson, as shown in Table N The basis for stream quality is the Havens and Emerson analyses done in , shown in Table N Because sludge quality data are not available for the "minor waste streams" grit, screenings and skimmings , the solids and liquid quality as developed will be assumed to include these minor streams.

The long-term averages shown should be only used as an approximate measure of quality, because of the changes in metals input that may have occurred between and the present. The lead concentrations found by JBF are considerably greater than those of the MDC, which is explained by the difference in anal- ytical methods. Deer Island analytical procedures may be inadvertently precipitating lead by digesting with sulfuric acid. The second major difference is in the zinc concentrations, with JBF data once again in excess of the long-term MDC average.

No explanation can be given for this difference. The importance of metals is in the impacts of certain metals on air quality mercury and lead and in the impact on ac- ceptability of sludge for land application zinc, copper, nickel and cadmium. A comparison of the major metals concentrations that have been determined by the various analysts are presented in Table N These major metals relationships are: 1 mercury and lead emissions; 2 zinc equivalent see Appendix R on "Chemical Models for Land Application" ; and 3 cadmium: zinc ratio.

As shown, the differences in the values desired from the metals concentrations are less than the differences in the concentrations themselves. Using fiscal year July - June data, sludge and ash metals concentrations were computed Table N These figures can be compared to Tables N-7 and N-9 which show metals concentrations in the ash and sludge, respectively, and are based on data in the Havens and Emerson report, and JBF Scientific analysis.

Actual sludge, and consequently ash, metal concentrations will be depen- dent upon many factors, one of which being industrial pre-treatment effectiveness. Quantities and concentrations expected in liquid and solids effluent streams are shown in Table N-7 for the incineration alternatives Alternatives 1, 2 and 3 ; in Table N-8 for Alternative 4, ocean disposal of dewatered sludge; in Table N-9 for the two land application alternatives Alternatives 5 and 6 ; and in Table N for Alternative 7, No Action.

These computations have been based on Havens and Emerson data except as noted, and the concentrations are assumed to apply to the total final mass for disposal or application. Potential Impact of Pretreatment on Metals Content of Sludge Because of the importance of heavy metals in both land application and ocean disposal, the levels shown in Tables N-7 through N require some discussion.

For three cities New York, Pittsburgh and Muncie , the residential cadmium contribution ranged from 2. Table N-ll compares the influent metals loadings developed by Davis and Jacknow to the total influent metals loadings in the MDC system, based on the effluent metals and the expected removal with settling.

The results indicate that of the metals listed chromium and zinc loadings might be reduced by pretreatment. The principal question with respect to metals is the cadmium concentration, which cannot be expected to be reduced by pretreatment.

Cadmium is used in several applications which make it ubiquitous. Industrial pretreatment can achieve a high percent removal of heavy metals. Pretreatment is employed at the point source the industry and with specific pretreatment methods for the heavy metal s of concern.

Elson T. These reductions were of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and zinc concentrations; the percent reduction depends on the metal involved and the method of pretreatment employed. Industrial pretreatment will not remove all metals in the influent. A large portion of metals may be from residential contributions which, due to their nonpoint source nature, is difficult to pretreat. Metal concentrations in the influent may remain high even with industrial pretreatment if nonindustrial contributions of metals are in significant quantities.

If, for example, the major portion of cadmium is a result of residential contributions, then industrial pretreatment cannot be expected to effect a significant reduction of cadmium levels in the influent D. Entry of Metals into Environment In addition to the absolute quantity of heavy metals and their concentrations in the sludge, a second major consideration is the availability of these substances to enter the food chain, either through higher plants or through bacterial modification as in the conversion of metallic mercury to methyl mercury in bottom deposits.

Havens and Emerson, during their work in , conducted citrate extraction and distilled water extrac tion tests on both treated sludge and ash. These data are presented and compared in Table N While these data are of interest in tracking heavy metals and their effects on biota, the great bulk of research on soils and crops with respect to heavy metals have focused generally on total amounts of metals in the plow layer.

While this is not the generally accepted lower limit of detectability, the presence of concentrations of oil and grease interferred with PCB detectability below 0. Some parameters used in this definition include testing the material's flammability, corrosiveness and toxicity. Due to the heavy metals content of the MDC sludge and ash, the sludge and ash may be toxic and be defined as hazardous. One of the tests to determine a waste's toxicity involves obtaining a representative sample or an elutriate from a "toxicant extraction procedure.

At present, this test is only one of the proposed methods for determining toxicity. Many aspects of RCRA are not yet final and are in the preliminary stages. The report pointed out the international character of ocean dumping and the lack of legislative authority existing at that time.

Regulatory activities were fragmented and authority was largely confined to the territorial sea or to specific classes of pollutants. CEQ recommended a national policy to ban unregulated ocean dumping of all materials and to strictly limit ocean dumping of any materials harmful to the marine environment. Ocean disposal of sewage sludge may take place through either direct discharge of sludge from barges or ships, or through pipelines which discharge directly to the ocean. The disposal of municipal sewage sludge by barge dumping is prevalent on the east coast on the mid-Atlantic Bight NAS, Municipal sludges and effluents are discharged through outfalls on the southern California Bight.

In , Congress passed additional legislation for federal control of water pollution with specific references to ocean disposal of wastes. Sections c of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of PL and c of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of PL both require that applications for permits for the dumping or other discharge of any materials into the marine environment be evaluated on the basis of impact of the materials on the marine environment and marine ecosystems, on the present and potential uses of the ocean and on the economic and social factors involved.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of PL prohibit the discharges of pollutants into navigable waters, which include the territorial sea and the contiguous zone of 12 miles. The contiguous zone is defined in inter- national law as a zone of limited jurisdiction beyond the territorial sea, measured from the coastal baseline Ketchum, The permit ? Section specifically requires a permit issued by the Administrator of EPA for the disposal of sewage sludge in navigable waters.

The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of requires permits for dumping wastes anywhere in ocean waters. The purpose of the Act is to regulate the transportation of material from the United States for dumping into ocean waters, and the dumping of material, transported from outside the United States, if the dumping occurs in ocean waters over which the United States has jurisdiction or control under accepted princi- ples of international law. Title I of the Act delineates pro- hibited acts, permit requirements and criteria for evaluating permit applications.

The Administrator of EPA is given the authority to issue permits. EPA has delegated responsibility for permit review and approval to its ten regional offices. Title II of the Act contains provisions for the initiation of a comprehensive, continuing program of monitoring and research regarding the effects of dumping of materials into the ocean waters, coastal waters where tidal flow takes place, or the Great Lakes and their connecting waters.

Since MDC is not now presently considered an ocean dumper, the type of permits that might be allowed are either of the "special" or "emergency" type. Emergency permits are only available where a situation of urgency exists and cannot be considered as a feasible long-term solution to the sludge disposal problem.

Special permits are available with expira- tion dates specified as no later than three years after issu- ance if the dumped material meets certain criteria with regard to trace contaminants and environmental impact. The allowable levels of these materials may not exceed the following 40 CFR, Subchapter H : Mercury and its compounds Solid phase - not greater than 0.

Oils and greases; Not to produce a visible surface sheen in an undisturbed water sample when added at a rate of one part of waste material to parts of water. If these materials are harmless or are rapidly rendered harmless by physical, chemical or biological processes at sea, will not, if dumped, make edible marine organisms unpalatable or will not, if dumped, endanger human health or that of domestic animals, fish, shellfish and wildlife the above limitations do not apply.

Wastes containing one or more of the following materials shall be treated as requiring special care: 1. Organosilicon compounds and compounds which may form such substances in the marine environment. Inorganic processing wastes, including cyanides, fluorides, titanium dioxide wastes, and chlorine. Petrochemicals, organic chemicals, and organic processing wastes, including, but not limited to: Aliphatic solvents Amines Phenols Polycyclic aromatics Plastic intermediates Phthalate esters and byproducts Detergents Plastics 5.

Radioactive wastes not otherwise prohibited. As a general policy, the containment of radioactive mater- ials is indicated rather than their direct dispersion and dilution in ocean waters. Materials that are immiscible with seawater, such as gasoline, carbon disulfide, toluene.

These materials may be dumped if the applicant can demon- strate that the sludge proposed for disposal meets the limiting permissible concentrations of total pollutants described for organohalogens considering both the concentration of pollutants in the waste material itself and the total mixing zone available for initial dilution and dispersion. Amendments to the existing legislation both PL and PL and finalization of rules and regulations regarding criteria and permit procedures for ocean dumping of sewage sludge have clarified the positions of both Congress and EPA on the ocean dumping question.

These actions serve to further specify the conditions under which sewage sludge among other materials may be dumped into the ocean. The most important statements of policy are contained in the amendments to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of as follows: Sec. The Administrator of the Environmental Pro- tection Agency shall end the dumping of sewage sludge into ocean waters, , as soon as possible , but in no case may the Administrator issue any permit , which authorizes any such dumping after December 31, The United States is also bound by international law to control ocean dumping of potential pollutants.

The London Conven- tion prohibits the dumping of some materials except as trace materials , requires special care for the dumping of other iden- tified substances, and provides for a general permit for others NAS, The Convention was ratified by the United States on August 3, On October 15, , ocean dumping regula- tions pursuant to PL were adopted and subsequently amended PL in March to incorporate provisions of the London Convention, which were not included in the original legislation.

The London Convention recently became international law following ratification by fifteen consulting nations. Summary The basis for determining the level of degradation outlined in paragraph b above remains those criteria governing the is- suance of permits CFR 40, Subchapter H or bioassay procedures which have yet to be approved. On these bases, the MDC sludge would not be approvable for ocean dumping in the foreseeable future, since the level of trace contaminants far exceed those in the criteria.

The nature of the sludge, at present, the remote likeli- hood of improvement in the near future, the possibility of other alternatives, and the stated policies of the federal government regarding ocean dumping, makes this alternative infeasible. Dick and Reed have given descriptions of sludge disposal, which will be summarized here along with data from other sources.

Presently there are two different forms of land applica- tion for sanitary waters: WWTP effluents, and treatment plant sludges. Raw sewage is not generally applied to land in the United States, principally for reasons of public health. In this discussion, methods for disposal of dried and liquid sludge will be addressed. Forms of Applied Sludge Sludge is presently applied to land in one of three con- centrations: as liquid sludge, as a dewatered cake, or as a dry fertilizer.

When dewatered sludge is used for a nutrient source and soil conditioner, the cake is spread on the ground by manure spreaders, bulldozers or tractors, then the field is plowed to mix the sludge into the active soil layer. As the sludge becomes assimilated by the soil, it changes the pore size of clay soils resulting in better aeration.

As a result of sludge incorporation, sandy soils have improved soil aggregation tilth , increased chenical reaction sites for nutrient exchanges, and increased binding capacity Kirkham, But dried sludge is harder to incorporate into the soil than other forms of sludge.

Odors and pathogens are not a problem with this material, since the drying process is unfavorable for pathogens and reduces the volatile materials which cause odors. Liquid Sludge Liquid sludge has been applied to the soil in the past, but without special consideration for its nutrient value. With costs of chemical fertilizers rising, use of sludge as a fertilizer and soil conditioner is being more closely studied for its advantages and disadvantages Kirkham, ; Walter, ; Singh, et.

Liquid sludge acts as a soil conditioner in much the same manner as dried sludge. The amount of sludge applied to the soils depends on the type of soil and its use. Between 10 and 30 tons of dry solids per acre per year have been applied to agricultural land with no apparent problems Singh, et. When used to condition a sand landfill, tons of dry solids per acre per year has been used successfully, while 1 ton dry solids per acre per year has been used to fertilize publicly owned grasslands Hinesly and Sosewitz, Although the infiltration rate of the soil determine how much liquid sludge can be applied at one time, the total amount that may be applied is generally determined by the cation exchange capacity of the soil and the concentrations of zinc, copper and nickel in the sludge Walker, Spreading of liquid sludge is generally less complex than is spreading of dried sludge.

Three methods are commonly used: Spray irrigation, ridge and furrow infiltration, and spreading from tank trucks. Spray irrigation utilizes large- nozzled sprayers to distribute the liquid evenly over the soil surface. Ridge and furrow infiltration depends on basins or canals to allow infiltration of the liquid into the soil. Infiltration may be capable of handling a larger volume than the other methods, although spray irrigation is more efficient for nutrient removal Hinesly and Sosewitz, Considering only domestic sludge, spray irrigation in a forest has been used from June until December, and handled 0.

The ridge and furrow method has been used for days, handling an average of 1. Similar data is not available for tank truck spreading procedures. Two of the difficulties associated with these methods are their dependence on climatic and soil conditions for proper operation. During periods of rain or snow these techniques are not effective, thus requiring storage facilities for the sludge.

Care must be taken that organic and nitrogen contamination of groundwater does not occur. Odors from the sludge may be disagreeable to neighboring populations Reed, In order to contain odor problems in Denver, it was found necessary to work the sludge into the ground soon after application Wolf, This is about the cost of dewatering the sludge alone Riddel and McCormack, Fertilizer from Sludge By air-drying sludge, a granular fertilizer can be pro- duced, which can either be processed further or distributed in that form.

A major difference between these methods is their cost. When distribution of the sludge became a problem, a fertilizer producer was contacted and an arrangement made where the contractor supplements the nutrient content and then markets the sludge Styers, Winston-Salem disposes of approximately 10 tons of dry solids per day in this manner.

Transportation of Sludge Prior to Land Application Transportation sludge from a waste treatment plant to the final disposal site may be accomplished by utilizing any one or any combination of several modes of transportation, including tank truck, barge, railroad and pipeline. The transported sludge may be in the form of a liquid, thickend sludge, dewatered cake, compost product or dried powder. The various forms of sludge or sludge products which remain after dewatering or drying exhibit different physical characteristics.

These characteristics will impose some limitations in selecting modes of transportation which are capable of handling the type of sludge being considered for transport. However, there is considerable variation in energy intensiveness which is defined as BTU per ton-mile of transported material.

Truck Transportation Energy Costs Using work by Ashtakla , the energy costs of truck transportation of sludge can be calculated. A diesel powered truck with a ton This assumes that the truck returns empty. As an example, if the transport distance one way is 20 miles, the fuel energy required is 20 x 1, or 35, BTU per ton. A second approach is to use the BTU per ton-mile versus gross vehicle weight curve presented by Ashtakala with an average payload both ways of 10 tons 9.

As a con- servative figure, allowing for waiting time at loading and unloading facilities, 2, BTU per ton-mile may be used. For transportation of sludge or compost, the BTU per ton-mile measure must generally be converted to BTU per dry ton-mile. Rail, Barge and Pipeline Transport Energy Costs, Using data presented by Hirst for energy costs of rail transport, barge and pipeline, sludge transport energy costs have been developed.

For transport of sewage sludge or compost, two modifications are necessary. The moisture content of the sludge and the energy cost of returning the empty vehicle must be considered. As noted, a correlation between the present solids of the sludge and the energy required to transport a ton of dry solids can be derived. The energy intensiveness required to transport these quantities were then calculated for each mode of transportation.

Figure P-l is a graphical presentation of this correlation. For simplicity, percent solids was used to depict the total weight of the sludge. It is apparent from the graph in Figure P-l that truck transport is significantly more energy intensive than barge, rail or pipeline transport. However, trucks offer flexibility in the selection of a disposal site and for this reason have been widely used to haul and apply sludge. Small to medium size tank trucks with capacities of 1,, gallons can serve the needs of small communities where space and accessibility are sufficient to accommodate truck traffic with minimal adverse impacts on traffic.

Large tank trucks which are capable of transporting approximately 3, gallons of sludge are usually too cumbersome for applying sludge directly to disposal sites and result in more adverse impacts on traffic in urban areas. Railroad transport is less energy intensive than truck transportation of sludge or sludge products, but requires a rail head of switching yard near the plant for efficient operation of this transport system.

Pumping is required from the treatment plant to the rail head which in turn may impose limitations in cases where rail service is not readily accessible. Barge or waterway transportation of sludge is practical in cases where water access is readily available. Loading of barges is accomplished by pumping directly from the digesters at the treatment plant. This mode of transportation offers the least flexibility. In order for a pipeline transport system to be effective for the Boston situation, the ultimate land disposal site would have to have sufficient land availability to insure an efficient useful life of approximately 40 years.

Crop Production Liquid sludge has been used for fertilizing corn, wheat, soybean and grain sorghum crops as well as pasture land and public grassland Hatcher, ; Singh, et. Corn grown on a prison farm has been fertilized by sludge from Martinsville, Virginia, and has shown better color and growth than corn grown on unfertilized plots Hatcher, Denver has been applying sludge to 2, acres of Federal land which is rented to a private concern for use as pasture.

Applications of dry tons per acre have shown no detrimental effects on the wheat or Sudan grass that is grown, and cattle pastured on the land are healthy and heavier than cattle raised on unfertilized pastures Wolf, Research by Singh, Keefer and Horvath on two types of soil shows different results.

On a loamy soil the yield of corn per acre more than doubled compared to unfertilized plots. However, in a sandy soil the plants were stunted compared to the crop grown on unfertilized plots. They theorize that the excessive drainage of the soil resulted in leaching of nutrients, as well as a possible plant toxicity from heavy metals.

Since primary digested sludge is generally used as agricul- tural land, contamination of foodstuffs and spreading of pathogens is of concern. An additional problem associated with sludge fertilization is heavy metal uptake by crops, resulting in toxicity of the plants or concentration of heavy metals in consumers. While application of 30 tons of dry solids per acre has resulted in an increase in zinc concentration in foliage from 48 ppm to 88 ppm, this level is well below the accepted toxicity concentration of ppm Singh, et.

No health problems or toxicity problems were reported Hinesly and Sosewitz, and the crops grown on sludge fertilized land have generally been healthy and produce large yields. Problems With Land Application of Sludge 1. Public Acceptability So far the greatest problem in land disposal of sludge has been public acceptability. The idea of using sludge to fertilize crops and recreational areas is repugnant to many people.

As with marketing sludge fertilizers, marketing of agricultural products grown in sludge fertilized fields has been difficult at times. Fears of disease and odors are the common complaint, and can be reduced by the distribution of information on the techniques used and how any problems will be contained Alter, ; Kirkham, But an additional complicating factor are various local laws restricting the transport of sludge or the sale of municipal "property;" such restrictions have at times caused more problems than the actual marketing Styers, The type of sludge being applied and the method of applica- tion also influence the pathogens and odors present.

Dry sludge in the fertilizer form has little problem with pathogens or odors due to the method of preparation. Liquid and dewatered sludges need care in handling to control possible odors and pathogen populations. Heavy Metals Excessive heavy metal concentrations are a problem in all forms of sludge that are land applied.

Certain elements found in sewage sludge, although often necessary for plants and animals in low concentrations, can cause toxic reactions in high concen- trations. Although higher concentrations of these elements are found in industrial wastes, concentrations in municipal wastes alone can be high enough to present toxicity problems when applied to agricultural land Page, The solubility and availability to plants of heavy metals is affected by the form of metal added i.

Elements considered for plant toxicity include cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, mercury and nickel. These metals have been found to increase most drastically with sludge application. This is a common occurrence for copper and nickel, while phosphate has been shown to reduce zinc insoluble salts of lead and mercury in the soil, thus restricting their movement. Zinc, cadmium, copper and nickel are held either as salts or by the cation exchange capacity of the soil, although some is available for plant uptake.

Iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium and potassium are abundant in most soils, indicating that amounts added by sludge should not affect plant balances Lindsay, Extractable concen- trations of cadmium and zinc have been shown to decrease with the depth of soil Kirkham, This indicates that once plant roots extend past the surface layer of soil less metals come in contact with the plant roots, resulting in less uptake. Field studies involving plant toxicity generally raised the soil pH to 6.

Jeffery, Gustavo Alonso, Michael J. Franklin, Wei Hong, Jennifer Widom. Emmanuel Munguia Tapia, Stephen S. Intille, Louis Lopez, Kent Larson. Anthony J. Nicholson, Ian E. Smith, Jeff Hughes, Brian D. Scalability in a Secure Distributed Proof System. Anind K. Shwetak N. Patel, Jun Rekimoto, Gregory D.

Elaine M. Huang, Elizabeth D. Mynatt, Jay P. Stephen S. Beaudin, Pallavi Kaushik, Jason Nawyn et al. Back Matter.


Without various Information Science technology-based applications, it would be difficult to keep information stored securely, to process information efficiently, and to communicate conveniently. Embedded computing ranges from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants.

Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Editors view affiliations Jame J. Conference proceedings. Front Matter Pages i-xxv.

Front Matter Pages In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol e.

But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle.

To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique NFT has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system , which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT. Soybean [Glycine max L. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems , Nutrient Film Technique NFT and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate as Ca NO3 2 and KNO3 and urea CO NH2 2 , on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT', inoculated with B. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT.

Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated.

Presents methods for demonstrating and applying scientific principles by growing plants through water culture hydroponics , including a review of the history of hydroponics , re-creating some early experiments, and setting up a modern hydroponic system.

Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia.

We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1 the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2 to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3 the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays.

These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions.

We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply ; producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants.

This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system. Two varieties of S. The aerial parts of S.

Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium. Comparison of two possible routes of pathogen contamination of spinach leaves in a hydroponic cultivation system.

The route of pathogen contamination from roots versus from leaves of spinach leaves was investigated with a hydroponic cultivation system. In contrast, contamination through the leaf occurred at a very low rate, even when the inoculum level was high. For all the pathogens tested in the present study, the probability of contamination was promoted through the roots and with higher inoculum levels. The probability of contamination was analyzed with logistic regression. The logistic regression model showed that the odds ratio of contamination from the roots versus from the leaves was 6.

In addition, the risk of contamination by L. The results of the present study indicate that the principal route of pathogen contamination of growing spinach leaves in a hydroponic system is from the plant's roots, rather than from leaf contamination itself.

Among the crops selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for growth in controlled ecological life support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts -- potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops have been produced in open and closed recirculating , solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent , fluorescent plus incandescent and high pressure sodium plus metal halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources.

Dry weight yields of up to , , and g m-2 for for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, have been produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems. Hill, W. Among the crops selected by NASA for growth in controlled ecological life-support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts: potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts.

These crops can be produced in open and closed recirculating , solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent, and high-pressure sodium-plus-metal-halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system. Different numbers of garlic plants 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants.

The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system , indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system.

Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss g stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system , as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae.

Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at parts per million ppm for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations. Effect of recirculation rate on methane production and SEBAR system performance using active stage digester.

A project was undertaken to examine the feasibility of treating organic wastes from Thai fruit and vegetable markets using the sequential batch anaerobic digester SEBAR approach. A key feature of the SEBAR system is the regular interchanging, or recirculation , of portions of leachate between each freshly filled digester and a support digester to which it is coupled until it is ready to operate independently.

Leachate transfer from this support digester to the fresh waste digester provides additional alkalinity to help counteract the effects of early high acid release rates; it also helps build a balanced microbial population in the fresh waste digester. To optimize the leachate recirculation process, the effect of varying the quantities of leachate interchanged between freshly filled waste digesters and the still highly active support digesters to which they were coupled was studied.

It was found that increasing the recirculation rate accelerated the onset of both waste degradation and methane production. The methane yields were 0. This finding has potentially important practical and economic implications for those using the SEBAR system to add value to market waste. Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution.

Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth. Effect of recirculation on organic matter removal in a hybrid constructed wetland system.

This research project aimed to determine the technologically feasible and applicable wastewater treatment systems which will be constructed to solve environmental problems caused by small communities in Turkey. Pilot-scale treatment of a small community's wastewater was performed over a period of more than 2 years in order to show applicability of these systems. The present study involves removal of organic matter and suspended solids in serially operated horizontal HFCW and vertical VFCW sub-surface flow constructed wetlands.

Anaerobically pretreated wastewater was introduced into this hybrid two-stage sub-surface flow wetland system TSCW. Wastewater was first introduced into the horizontal sub-surface flow system and then the vertical flow system before being discharged.

Recirculation of the effluent was tested in the system. The study showed that a hybrid constructed wetland system with recirculation is a very effective method of obtaining very low effluent organic matter and suspended solids concentrations downstream of anaerobic pretreatment of domestic wastewaters in small communities. Energy demand analysis via small scale hydroponic systems in suburban areas - An integrated energy-food nexus solution.

The study is a qualitative approach and looks into new ways for the effective energy management of a wind farm WF operation in a suburban or near-urban environment in order the generated electricity to be utilised for hydroponic farming purposes as well. Since soilless hydroponic indoor systems gain more and more attention one basic goal, among others, is to take advantage of this not typical electricity demand and by managing it, offering to the grid a less fluctuating electricity generation signal.

In this paper, a hybrid business model is presented where the Distributed Energy Resources DER producer is participating in the electricity markets under competitive processes spot market, real-time markets etc. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems BLSS because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates.

Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System PTNDS also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from Nitrate removal effectiveness of fluidized sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification biofilters for recirculating aquaculture systems.

There is a need to develop practical methods to reduce nitrate -nitrogen loads from recirculating aqua-culture systems to facilitate increased food protein production simultaneously with attainment of water quality goals. The most common wastewater denitrification treatment systems utilize methanol Effectiveness of a full-scale horizontal slow sand filter for controlling phytopathogens in recirculating hydroponics : From microbial isolation to full microbiome assessment.

The microbial disinfestation efficiency of an innovative horizontal-flow slow sand filter HSSF for treating nutrient solution spent from an experimental closed-loop nursery was evaluated by means of a combination of culture-dependent and independent molecular techniques. A dense inoculum of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.

The HSSF effectively reduced viable Fusarium propagules and fungal gene content with an efficiency consistently above On the other hand, Fusarium cells accumulated in the sand bed, indicating that physical entrapment was the main removal mechanism. The viability of retained Fusarium cells tended to decrease in time, so that treatment efficiency might be enhanced by antagonistic species from the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Trichoderma, also identified in the sand bed.

Indigenous bacterial populations from the HSSF effluent were reduced by Furthermore, microbial populations from the HSSF effluent were different from those observed in the sand bed and the influent. In summary, the HSSF microbial disinfestation efficiency is comparable to that reported for other more intensive and costly methodologies, while allowing a significant recovery of water and nutrients.

Hydroponic Gardening. In addition to being an actual source of foodstuffs in inhospitable climates and a potential source of a large portion of the world's food supply, hydroponic gardening is a useful technique in the classroom for illustrating the role of plant life in the world's food chain. An evaluation of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system. Control of dissolved gases, especially oxygen is an essential component of recirculating aquaculture systems.

The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture system creates supersaturated concentrations of dissolved oxygen and can reduce fish production costs by supporting greater fish and fee Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems. Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: a fixation of CO2 and production of O2, b production of grains for human nutrition and c production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration.

Four spring wheat cultivars Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered.

Mature grains could be harvested after around days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2 leading to a more favorable harvest higher grain yield and harvest index.

Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter including roots ranged from 0. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium.

Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics. An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination.

This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1 nutrient reduction 2 microbial reduction and 3 growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

Evaluation of commercial marine fish feeds for production of juvenile cobia in recirculating aquaculture systems. The effect of feeding three commercially available diets manufactured by three U. Juvenile cobia Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems.

During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems WRAS , it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming i. Disinfection of water in recirculating aquaculture systems with peracetic acid PAA. Peracetic acid is a strong oxidizing agent found in various concentrations in different products.

Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b Researchers evaluate low-energy recirculating system for inland production of marine finfish juveniles. The low-energy recirculating aquaculture system consists of nine separate modules which utilize the double drain fish culture tank paired to a moving bed biofilter.

The nine fiberglass tanks are five feet in diameter and normal water depth is about three feet for a total tank volume of approximately Hands-On Hydroponics. Hydroponics is a process in which plants are grown using nutrient-rich water instead of soil.

Because this process maximizes the use of water and nutrients--providing only what the plant uses in controlled and easily maintained systems --it is a viable alternative to traditional farming methods. The amount of control in these systems also ensures…. Response of graywater recycling systems based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of surfactants.

USU Apogee in a series of 21 day trials. Surfactant was added either in a 1. SLES showed rapid primary degradation in both experiments, with no accumulation 24 h after initial addition. Microbial communities associated with both the plant roots and wetted hardware surfaces actively degraded the surfactants, as determined by monitoring surfactant levels following pulse additions at day 20 with plants and day 21 after plant removal.

In order to test whether the biofilm communities could ameliorate phytotoxicity by providing a microbial community acclimated for CAPB and AE decay, the continuous exposure systems were planted with wheat seeds after crop removal at day Overall, the studies indicate that relatively small areas m 2 of hydroponic plant systems can process per capita production of mixed surfactants g x person -1 d -1 with minimal effects on plant growth.

Use of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in multiple tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture sys Domestic hot water DHW heating is the second largest energy end use in U. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop s are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water.

In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning heating and cooling were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7 percent after implementing the demand control technique, 2 percent after implementing temperature modulation, and 15 percent after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day.

With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8 percent, 1 percent, and 14 percent for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control.

Vessey, J. Jr; Raper CD, J. A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room CER for control of aerial environment. Mixing time for the liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min.

The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max L. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system. Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions. This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions.

The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces biofilms , and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower.

Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

Zebrafish is a vertebrate animal model. Their maintenance in large number under laboratory conditions is a daunting task. Commercially available recirculating zebrafish maintenance systems are used to efficiently handle the tasks of automatic sediment cleaning from zebrafish tanks with minimal waste of water. Due to their compact nature, they also ensure the maximal use of available lab space.

However, the high costs of commercial systems present a limitation to researchers with limited funds. A cost-effective zebrafish maintenance system with major features offered by commercially available systems is highly desirable. Here, we describe a compact and recirculating zebrafish maintenance system. Depending on the expertise of end users, the system can be assembled in 2 days.

The system is completely customizable as it offers geometry independent zebrafish tanks that are capable of auto-cleaning the sediments. Open-RAC is a cost-effective and viable alternative to the currently available zebrafish maintenance systems. Thus, we believe that the use of Open-RAC could promote the zebrafish research by removing the cost barrier for researchers.

Biofouling reduction in recirculating cooling systems through biofiltration of process water. Biofouling is a serious problem in industrial recirculating cooling systems. It damages equipment, through biocorrosion, and causes clogging and increased energy consumption, through decreased heat transfer. In this research a fixed-bed biofilter was developed which removed assimilable organic carbon AOC from process water, thus limiting the major substrate for the growth of biofouling.

The biofilter was tested in a laboratory model recirculating cooling water system , including a heat exchanger and a cooling tower. A second identical model system without a biofilter served as a reference. Both installations were challenged with organic carbon sucrose and yeast extract to provoke biofouling.

The biofilter improved the quality of the recirculating cooling water by reducing the AOC content, the ATP concentration, bacterial numbers fold and the turbidity OD The process of biofouling in the heat exchangers, the process water pipelines and the cooling towers, was monitored by protein increase, heat transfer resistance, and chlorine demanded for maintenance.

This revealed that biofouling was lower in the system with the biofilter compared to the reference installation. It was concluded that AOC removal through biofiltration provides an attractive, environmental-friendly means to reduce biofouling in industrial cooling systems.

At the initial seed inoculation level of 3. At a higher initial inoculation of 5. Examination of the spatial distribution of bacterial cells on different parts of microgreen plants showed that contaminated seeds led to systematic contamination of whole plants, including both edible and inedible parts, and seed coats remained the focal point of E. The study of recirculating aquaculture system in pond and its purification effect.

In this paper, a recirculating aquaculture purification system RAPS was designed to solve the problems of aquaculture pollution and shortage of freshwater resource according to the characteristic of northern freshwater ponds of China.

The system were arranged in series and composed of high density culture pond, deposit pond, floating and submerged plant pond, ecological floating bed pond and biofilm filtrate pond. The results indicated that the removal rate of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen in the recirculating aquaculture system were The floating and submerged plant pond and ecological floating bed pond can remove TN and TP obviously, and increase dissolved oxygen and transparency significantly.

And the biofilm filtrate pond has good effect of removing ammonium nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen, meanwhile, the microbial communities in the recirculating aquaculture system regulate on the water quality. Therefore, the RAPS show significant effects on water saving and pollution emission reducing.

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system. An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine.

An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system , independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto.

A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom. Selection and hydroponic growth of potato cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems. Molders, K. Potato plants can fulfill three major functions in an ECLSS in space missions: a fixation of CO2 and production of O2, b production of tubers for human nutrition and c production of clean water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration.

Four cultivars Annabelle, Bintje, Desiree and Innovator were selected and grown hydroponically in nutrient film technique NFT gullies in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. The plant growth parameters, tuber harvest parameters and results of tuber nutritional analysis of the four cultivars were compared.

The four potato cultivars grew well and all produced tubers. The growth period lasted days for all cultivars except for Desiree which needed days. Annabelle 1. They also produced two times more tubers than Desiree and Innovator. Innovator produced the biggest tubers The size of Annabelle and Bintje potatoes were intermediate. Bintje plants produced the highest total biomass in term of DW.

The highest non-edible biomass was produced by Desiree, which showed both the highest shoot and root DW. The manual length and width measurements were also used to predict the total tuber mass. The concentration of Cu, Zn and P were high compared to both databases. There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide.

Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine UCI , have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems , optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties.

We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery.

These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow Salix clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial.

If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues.

The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul S. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger. A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases.

The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed. Off-flavors in salmonids raised in recirculating aquaculture systems. Producers of aquaculture products will typically verify the flavor quality of their product by sensory evaluation flavor testing before harvesting the crop for market. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems.

CrGC , genome : ACaacc were grown to maturity. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments Both the highest canopy seed yield rate The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system.

Development of suitable hydroponics system for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water using an arsenic hyperaccumulator plant Pteris vittata. In this study, we found that high-performance hydroponics of arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata is possible without any mechanical aeration system , if rhizomes of the ferns are kept over the water surface level.

It was also found that very low-nutrition condition is better for root elongation of P. By the non-aeration and low-nutrition hydroponics for four months, roots of P. The improved hydroponics method for P. Flowing recirculated -water system for inducing laboratory spawning of sea lampreys. We describe a water- recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held under laboratory conditions. Sea lampreys were provided substrate approximately cm in diameter to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.

Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline. Argon purification studies and a novel liquid argon re-circulation system. Mavrokoridis, K. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of electronegative impurity on gaseous and liquid argon scintillation light, an analysis of the efficiency of various purification chemicals, as well as the Liverpool LAr setup, which utilises a novel re-circulation purification system.

Additionally, a correlation between the slow component decay time and the total energy deposited with 0. The superiority of molecular sieves over anhydrous complexes at absorbing Ar gas, N2 gas and H2O vapour has been quantified using BET isotherm analysis. A novel, highly scalable LAr re-circulation system has been developed.

The complete system , consisting of a motorised bellows pump operating in liquid and a purification cartridge, were designed and built in-house. An experimental design mimicking natural plant-microbe interactions is very important to delineate the complex plant-microbe signaling processes. Arabidopsis thaliana-Agrobacterium tumefaciens provides an excellent model system to study bacterial pathogenesis and plant interactions.

Previous studies of plant-Agrobacterium interactions have largely relied on plant cell suspension cultures, the artificial wounding of plants, or the artificial induction of microbial virulence factors or plant defenses by synthetic chemicals. However, these methods are distinct from the natural signaling in planta, where plants and microbes recognize and respond in spatial and temporal manners.

This work presents a hydroponic cocultivation system where intact plants are supported by metal mesh screens and cocultivated with Agrobacterium. In this cocultivation system , no synthetic phytohormone or chemical that induces microbial virulence or plant defense is supplemented. The hydroponic cocultivation system closely resembles natural plant-microbe interactions and signaling homeostasis in planta. Plant roots can be separated from the medium containing Agrobacterium, and the signaling and responses of both the plant hosts and the interacting microbes can be investigated simultaneously and systematically.

The hydroponic cocultivation system can be easily adapted to study: 1 the reciprocal signaling of diverse plant-microbe systems , 2 signaling between a plant host and multiple microbial species i. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition.

Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus P starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS, in a hydroponics growth system.

The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils.

The CFETR cryogenic system is crucial to creating and maintaining operational conditions for its superconducting magnet system and thermal shields. It will provide an average capacity of 75 to 80 kW at 4. The electric power consumption of the cryogenic system is estimated to be 24 MW, and the gross building area is about m2.

A system and methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds produced by hydroponic lettuce in a controlled environment. A system and methodology were developed for the nondestructive qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile emissions from hydroponically grown 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Photosynthetic photon flux PPF , photoperiod, and temperature were automatically controlled and monitored in a growth chamber modified for the collection of plant volatiles.

The lipoxygenase pathway products Z hexenal, Z hexenol, and Z hexenyl acetate were emitted by lettuce plants after the transition from the light period to the dark period. The volatile collection system developed in this study enabled measurements of volatiles emitted by intact plants, from planting to harvest, under controlled environmental conditions. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea within biofilters of a commercial recirculating marine aquaculture system. While biofilters are widely used to metabolize ammonia and other wastes in marine recirculating aquaculture systems , the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities have not been characterized across a diversity of production systems.

Cloning and sequencing of the amoA gene showed that nitrifying bacteria included Nitrosomonas europea, N. Nitrifying archaea included eight strains of Nitrosopumilus maritimus, N. The species composition of the bacterial and especially the archaeal communities was beyond that yet reported for aquaculture biofilters.

While ammonia flux through the respective communities has yet to be estimated, the diverse environmental adaptations of the bacterial and archaeal communities suggest resilience of function under a range of environmental conditions. Effects of recirculation in a three-tank pilot-scale system for pharmaceutical removal with powdered activated carbon.

The removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by powdered activated carbon PAC in municipal wastewater is a promising solution to the problem of polluted recipient waters. Today, an efficient design strategy is however lacking with regard to high-level overall, and specific, substance removal in the large scale. The performance of PAC-based removal of pharmaceuticals was studied in pilot-scale with respect to the critical parameters; contact time and PAC dose using one PAC product selected by screening in bench-scale.

A set of 21 pharmaceuticals was selected from an initial due to their high occurrence in the effluent water of two selected wastewater treatment plants WWTPs in Sweden, whereof candidates discussed for future EU regulation directives were included. By using recirculation of PAC over a treatment system using three sequential contact tanks, a combination of the benefits of powdered and granular carbon performance was achieved.

The treatment system was designed so that recirculation could be introduced to any of the three tanks to investigate the effect of recirculation on the adsorption performance. This was compared to use of the setup, but without recirculation. A higher degree of pharmaceutical removal was achieved in all recirculation setups, both overall and with respect to specific substances, as compared to without recirculation. Recirculation of PAC to either the first or the second contact tank proved to be comparable, while a slightly lower performance was observed with recirculation to.

Automated hydroponics nutrition plants systems using arduino uno microcontroller based on android. Technological developments today make the combination of science is very common, including in Computer Science and Agriculture to make both of science need each other. This paper aims to develop a control tool for the flow of nutrients of hydroponic plants automatically using Arduino microcontroller and controlled by smartphone. We use an Arduino Uno microcontroller to automatically control the flow of nutrient solution with logic if else.

The microcontroller can also send data of fluid level solution and temperature around the plant to smartphone android of the owner of the hydroponics plant. The height of the nutrient solution water is detected by the Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 and the temperature is detected by the temperature sensor LM Data from the sensor will forward into Arduino Uno and displayed in liquid crystal display LCD then via wireless fidelity WIFI ESP module will transmit the height of the nutrient solution and the temperature around of the plants to Android smartphone.

The molecular adsorbent recirculating system as a liver support system : summary of Mexican experience. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the molecular absorbent recirculating system MARS on patients with acute liver failure ALF and liver failure with cirrhosis AoCLF as well as in cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus in a Mexican population. The patients were examined using a standard liver function test and for vital signs, presence of ascites and encephalopathy before and after each treatment.

The therapeutic response, patient status, follow-up status, and need for liver transplantation were determined. Seventy-nine MARS procedures were performed. Thirty-eight ALF patients were listed for emergency liver transplantation and treated with MARS; 20 of these patients died on a waiting list, 18 survived.

An implantable centrifugal blood pump with a recirculating purge system Cool-Seal system. A compact centrifugal blood pump has been developed as an implantable left ventricular assist system. The impeller diameter is 40 mm, and pump dimensions are 55 x 64 mm.

This first prototype, fabricated from titanium alloy, resulted in a pump weight of g including a brushless DC motor. The weight of a second prototype pump was reduced to g. The entire blood contacting surface is coated with diamond like carbon DLC to improve blood compatibility. A newly designed mechanical seal with a recirculating purge system Cool-Seal is used for the shaft seal.

In this seal system , the seal temperature is kept under 40 degrees C to prevent heat denaturation of blood proteins. Purge fluid also cools the pump motor coil and journal bearing. Purge fluid is continuously purified and sterilized by an ultrafiltration unit which is incorporated in the paracorporeal drive console.

In vivo experiments are currently ongoing using calves. Via left thoracotomy, left ventricular LV apex descending aorta bypass was performed utilizing an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ePTFE vascular graft with the pump placed in the left thoracic cavity.

The seal system has demonstrated good seal capability with negligible purge fluid consumption Flowing- recirculated water system for inducing spawning phase sea lampreys to spawn in the laboratory. Sea lampreys were provided substrate approximately 3—6 cm in diameter to build nests, and a water velocity of 0. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in a simulated recirculating brine chiller system. Contamination by Listeria monocytogenes of processed meats after cooking presents a significant food safety risk.

The purpose of this study was to determine the survival of L. At pH values of 5, 6, and 7 with chlorine concentrations of 2 and 3 ppm, using 10 8 CFU in a test tube system , an immediate drop of 0. In brine at a pH of 5 with 5 and 10 ppm of chlorine, an initial drop of 0. At an inoculation concentration of 10 2 CFU in a test tube system pH values of 5 and 7 with 0 and 10 ppm of chlorine , the average initial drop for all treatments was 0. In a recirculating system , very few cells were destroyed during the brine chilling process, but only low numbers of L.

Although little destruction of L. General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector SDC in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building.

In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity pressure drop from filter shaking was examined. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine e. The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room.

This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a companion. Recirculating Aquaculture 4th edition. However, when the control provided by recirculating systems and the benefits this env Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics GBH as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages.

The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates 23 species and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification.

Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water. El-Serehy, Hamed A. Improving the sustainability in agriculture is nowadays an important challenge. The automation of irrigation processes via low-cost sensors can to spread technological advances in a sector very influenced by economical costs.

This article presents an auto-calibrated pH sensor able to detect and adjust the imbalances in the pH levels of the nutrient solution used in hydroponic agriculture. The sensor is composed by a pH probe and a set of micropumps that sequentially pour the different liquid solutions to maintain the sensor calibration and the water samples from the channels that contain the nutrient solution. To implement our architecture, we use an auto-calibrated pH sensor connected to a wireless node.

Several nodes compose our wireless sensor networks WSN to control our greenhouse. The sensors periodically measure the pH level of each hydroponic support and send the information to a data base DB which stores and analyzes the data to warn farmers about the measures. The data can then be accessed through a user-friendly, web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices.

This paper also shows the design and test bench for both the auto-calibrated pH sensor and the wireless network to check their correct operation. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems BLSSs. Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen N , by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2.

Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate.

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BlueStacks is the first production software that allows you to use your favorite mobile apps on a Windows PC. Basiclly this aplication is an Android emulator for PC. Download What's New Certified Similar to 2. Last updated:. January 6, User rating:. Adjust the aiming sensitivity easily using the Controls editor. Access advanced settings for key controls in the Controls editor with just one click.

Use the gear icon at the bottom of each key control or simply right-click on the control key. The Settings menu is now more user-friendly. Some UI improvements have been made to the BlueStacks home screen for a more organized look. Various improvements give you better accuracy while using character skills in League of Legends: Wild Rift com. Several bug fixes have helped us bring you enhanced and smoother gameplay. The red and blue are mainly for exploration and geared towards the new dimension but can be used anywhere, where the purple is mainly focused on mining purposes.

Get all the Seeds! Gizmos Planetguy. Allows hiding items inside tools, adds a time travel device, a building tool, a bomb defuser, special fire and four explosive blocks. Glacier Ice fisherman Ever wished you could do some ice skating races, but the ice is too slow? Ever wanted to propel yourself off a giant cliff or perhaps wanted to make a roller coaster? This mod adds in Glacier Ice that propels and bounces you!

Glowstone Wire GrygrFlzr. Allows you to place glowstone dust! Not only they're great for trails, they actually give out light! Adds shaders that can be swapped in-game. Allows use of Depth of Field, Parallax Occlusion and other advanced shading. Goblins Sartharis. Goblins and Giants wuppy GoldenOrb Fnb34st.

Gravel Replacement Kinyoshi. Makes the gravel block not drop flint when mined, making the acquisition of flint dependent on crafting flint from chert or by using Kinyoshi's Smeltable Gravel mod. Hello boys and girls! Our scientists are glad to present you the latest advanced scientific development! There were numerous attempts to reproduce the gravitational engine of aliens, but till they were unsuccessful.

And now after long years of research we represent you our new development a gravitational suite, based at alien technology. Gravity Gun iChun. Universal Forge Required iChun Util. Adds Slimophones, which helps you track down those elusive slimes; and Mining Radars, which helps you find ores and other materials underground. This is a mod for the Minecraft. Currently it gives you SG-1 style stargates. In the future, it may include other things from the SG-1 universe. GregTech-Addon GregoriusT.

A highly configurable addon for IndustrialCraft with several modes depending on how much time and dedication you're willing to spend on it. On top of allowing you to configure previously existing recipes to your liking, this addon also adds higher levels of technology to work towards.

It's frequently used on servers so that people don't get all possible technology in a single day. Grey Goo Mod stevenrs Griefer Creepers Risugami. This mod changes how creepers attack. Instead of blowing itself up, It will disappear and launcher arrows straight into the air, which will rain down on the landscape. Grimoire of Gaia 2 Silentine. Intended to add mobs and make the game harder while more powerful and well-coded mods provide high-end enhancements to the player.

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Lets you smelt doown hostile mob drops into heart dust, which can then be used to craft heart items that heal instantly upon righ-click. Health Packs wuppy Herblore Mod adults only calebmanley. Highlands sdj Adds more mountains and hills, with varied environments and sub-biomes like mountains, lakes, forest clearings, valleys and islands. Uses no modded blocks in world generation, allowing for vanilla compatible worlds.

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Immibis Core Dependency immibis. Immibis's Microblocks Dependency immibis. Mostly work like RedPower 2's microblocks. Install into the coremods folder. Required for RedLogic. Universal Forge Required Immibis Core. Immibis's Peripherals immibis. Improved First Person kes Enables rendering of the rest of the body in first person mode, making the game look more realistic and allowing players to see front of the player's model and skin in first person mode.

Improved Mob Spawn wuppy This mod will change the mob spawn of several mobs. One example is that spider jockeys are 5 times less rare. There are also changes to the spawns of slime, cave spiders, blazes, silver fish and magma cubes. IC2 experimental is unstable, may break worlds and its API may change frequently. Create backups of your world when using it.

Use at own risk if you can't wait for stable, non-experimental builds. Being Tested on Forgecraft 2. Adds many blocks and items for both crafting and to find whilst exploring, adding the ability to industrialize your Minecraft life with electricity and various means of increasing efficiency for the materials you've collected.

Infernal Mobs AtomicStryker. This mod randomly imbues spawning Mobs in the World with Diablo-style random Enchantments, making them much harder and much more rewarding to kill. They also drop the quadruple amount of xp and a random enchanted item. InfiCraft mDiyo. InfiniTubes immibis. IngameInfo bspkrs. Want to know how much score you have without having to die?

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Invincible Hamster Ivorius. Lets hamsters spawn in your world. When you tame them with flowers, they become invincible hamsters, with a never ending hate for iron bars. IronChests cpw. Adds chests made from different types of metal to the game.

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A client mod which maps your Minecraft world in real-time as you explore. You can view the live map in a web browser, on your iPad, or in-game. You get a daylight map, a moonlight map, cave maps by vertical slice, Nether maps, and End maps.

A live radar shows nearby mobs, animals, and pets. Journey of Legends Alpha aginsun. A continuation of the Tale of Kingdoms mod's story and functionality, plus many new features, including multiplayer support! Joypad Mod freeshiny. Jukebox Reloaded cazzar. Adds multiple records, auto play, repeat, and shuffle functions to the vanilla jukebox.

Includes ComputerCraft integration. Keepcalm's Mods KeepCalm. SMP Forge Required. KenshiroMod AtomicStryker. Unleashing rage only possible with bare chest and empty hands. For real men only. Keyhole Mod briman Kirwi's Clay Golem Mod Kirwii. Koi wuppy Lantern Mod -Reaper-. Lanterns Mod HyperNerd. Adds lanterns which can be carried and will emit light around the player when switched on.

The light can be seen by other players on SMP. Lava Decay fishtaco Lava Monsters FatherToast. If you've ever found yourself bored once you mine down to lava because it stops hostile mobs from spawning, then this is the mod for you! This is a small mod that adds a new hostile monster to the game that spawns in lava and spits fireballs at you.

Legendary Beasts Alpha Davidee. LegendGear NMcCoy. A mod inspired by The Legend of Zelda and other classic games, providing new weapons, consumables, and accessories, as well as adding a couple new plants to world generation. Light Level Overlay 4poc. Visualizes the light levels emitted by torches, glowstone and alike directly on top of blocks, this is helpful to quickly identify areas where mobs can spawn.

It shows the light level of the airblock above the block the number is drawn onto, this is the block that is considered for mob spawning, light level 7 or below allows mobs to spawn. Light Sensor Risugami. Adds a new craftable block that is a new input for redstone mechanisms.

It turns on if it is hit with a light level of Lion King Mod Mevans. Liquid Essence Gyromitra. Allows to liquefy essence, e. Also provides Forestry capsules and recipes for Bottler and Squeezer. Liquid Metals fred Liquid UU-Matter narc. Liquid XP immibis. Adds liquid XP, and related machines. You will need a mod capable of transporting liquids. It has been tested with Buildcraft waterproof pipes and Thermal Expansion liquiducts.

It does not seem to work with RedPower 2 fluid pipes. LittleBlocks VengeurK. Allows you to polish up your creativity and optimize your redstone systems. Indeed, the size of blocks placed in a little blocks is divided by eight compared to its original size, so you can place blocks instead of one.

Adds a tameable mob called the Little Maid, who can do a lot of stuff for you! The Maid can help you fight, cook meals, heal you, build and much more! If you forgot her salary, maid gets into strike, until you give her a cake. Lockit hypercross. An extensive overhaul of the Buildcraft pipe system. It allows for better distribution of items via pipes, more organised stockkeeping and easier automated crafting. Lost Books FatherToast. Adds a chance for monsters to drop randomly books out of a set of books that anyone can create with ease!

Books can even support randomized words for books similar to automatically generated Mad Libs! Lots of Food pifou Mac's Mods Mac. Magical Experience wuppy Magical Experience adds new ways to get experience. You can also craft all the spawner eggs with this mod and there are some very fun items that can destroy your world if you are not careful. Magic Bees Arkandos, mezz, MysteriousAges. Previously known as ThaumicBees. Adds several new bee species to Forestry that will assist in producing useful items for Thaumcraft.

If you love Thaumcraft and Beekeeping, these new species will provide extra resources and benefits to those clever enough to obtain them. Magic Rings Mod jshreder. Adds four magical rings to the game including: Flying Ring: Takes on the basic idea of Swiftwolf's Rending Gale from Equivalent Exchange 2 and have made it run off of hunger, along with some aesthetic changes, and the fact that it can be anywhere in your inventory, not just your hotbar.

Harvest Ring: Used as you would bonemeal, with the same effect. Water Ring: Lets you breathe underwater. Teleport Ring: Teleport you to a block within blocks. This will only work if you are pointing at the top of a block. Magic Yarn AtomicStryker. It is crafted by surrounding a Compass with Wool any kind. The item serves as pathfinding tool and to keep track of your movements.

In other words, you should never again get lost exploring the Nether or some complex cave system, and without leaving a ridiculous amount of Torches to mark your trail. You use a button instead, by default J. MapWriter mapwriter. Marcopolo's Mods marcopolo Marvelous Moon Mod majikguy. MAtmos Hurricaaane. MAtmos is a sound atmosphere generator for Minecraft. Whenever you play on any multiplayer server or in singleplayer, it looks at your surroundings and generates natural noises as a soundscape, such as birds chirping in the forest, rumbling noises near a lava lake or wind gusts on a hilltop.

This fills out the perpetual silence of Minecraft. MCAbilities tylordddude You get abilities with experience levels. MCDitty fenceFoil. MCPatcher Kahr. Enhanced colors, animations, mipmapping, textures and font support. Includes Connected Textures and RandomMobs. Mecha Craft iAura. Have you always Minecraft a little more futuristic and harder?

Have you found the nether had not enough resources? Well not anymore! MegaCraft Mod NielsSrychi. Megalithic Construction Mod Mojito Adds 16 new blocks with the ability to selectively connect and disconnect the block's textures using 1 of 4 hammer and chisel tools. Melon Spawn MatrexsVigil. Adds melon patches in the world similar to pumpkin patches in forest, plains, swamp, ocean, and jungle biomes.

Metallurgy 2 Shadowclaimer. Middleage Mod Ivorius. Millenaire Kinniken. This mod aims to fill the emptyness of Minecraft worlds by adding NPC villages to it, with loose 11th-century Norman, Japanese and Mayan themes and additional cultures planned. Villages are populated with men, women and children of various kinds, who perform tasks such as trading with the player, expending current buildings or improving existing ones, cultivating crops such as wheat in Norman villages and rice in Indian ones, crafting tools and powerful amulets, etc.

As the village expends, the number of villagers increases as couples have children who grow up into new adults. Help villages grow by trading with them and be rewarded with unique items such as Normand and Indian food or statues and tapestries to decorate your house with. And if they start liking you enough, they might even build you a house of your own.

The aim of this mod is to provide the player with controllable npcs that will help you fight enemies. This is actually a re-iteration of an old mod I made a while ago Battlecraft which I unfortunately had to let go. There are a number of mods that provide npcs, however this mod will focus on soldier type npcs.

The other thing that will set this mod apart from other similar mods is the ability for units to gain experience and upgrade to more powerful units as well as the great deal of customisation of the visual appearance of the soldiers. Minechanics Alpha th3falc0n. MineChem ljdp. Adds chemistry and machines that decompose items into elements and molecules.

Also adds microscopes and synthesis machines to turn elements back into items. Everybody wants a cape and now you can get one! Create an account in ten seconds and login, upload a cape image or choose one from the gallery! All you have to do now After that, all you have to do is install the mod and you'll be able to see your cape! Replaces villagers with male and female humans that have many unique skins. You may interact with the villagers in new ways, including hiring them to guard you, having them follow you, or setting down and starting a family with them.

Minecraft: Community Edition coau Minecraft My Way mod WyrdOne. MineFactory Reloaded power crystals. MFR aims to automate a number of tasks that previously would be difficult, boring, or work-intensive. It also provides some additional support blocks and machines. MineFantasy Beta AnonymousProductions. MineFantasy adds difficulty to the game by expanding the progression through mining, crafting and smelting, adding a longer tier of metals and processes from forging, smelting, alloying, tanning, and refining.

As well as a range of monsters, pvp opportunities and decorations to add difficulty and a middle-aged gameplay experience. MineFantasy: Renaissance AnonymousProductions. MineFantasy Renaissance expansion extends the progression in MineFantasy by expanding out of the middle ages and experiencing a further depth in refining steels, adding new tools, armours, firearms, bows, bombs etc.

Mine Little Brony Teotoo. A work in progress mod that adds many new items to the game, including zap apples, Fluttershy trees, and many more things! There's also a biome for the Everfree Forest. Mine Little Pony Verdana. Once the mod is installed, you and all other players will look like ponies in both singleplayer and multiplayer. Players who aren't using a special pony skin will look like one of the background ponies from the show as the default player skins are not fully compatible with this mod.

Clientside Forge Compatible LiteLoader. Minema BarracudaATA. Allows you to record jerk-free movies in Minecraft, no matter how slow your PC or how complex the scenery is. This is made possible by a temporary modification of the game timer that ensures a constant game time passed between each frame, disabling any synchronization with the actual time. In other words: performance doesn't matter for smooth videos anymore! Minesweeper Mod MineMaarten. Adds the old school Minesweeper game into the game.

Solving puzzles gives you loot, and puzzles can be found in custom Minesweeper dungeons. MineTunes fenceFoil. MineTunes combines Minecraft blocks with a MIDI synthesizer to create the ultimate musical solution for doorbells, adventure maps, and creative multiplayer block-jamming.

MineTunes works in both single and multiplayer, and adds no new blocks. Further, the mod's attention to detail is vast: you can disable and enable each individual part, you can save music to MIDI files, and new updates arrive every couple of weeks at the press of a button.

MineVideo Kovu. MineVideo is an attempt to solve problems such as bad video quality, huge files that have to be compressed afterwards, bad in-game performance, expensive, limited or complicated tools, and watermarks. It is a mod that enables you to record in-game footage with the touch of one button. It's as easy as taking a screenshot and the resulting video files are small enough to quickly upload them to YouTube. Mining Enhancements Phobophobe.

Minions AtomicStryker. Allows you to summon minions that can currently :follow you aroundbe sent to placeschop down most any kind of trees, including Jungle giantscarry you, animals and other playerspickup and carry Items in their inventorydig mineshafts complete with stairwelldig out a custom sized space you definemine ore veins you point out to themintelligently strip mine where you tell them toreturn their goods and loot to youor to a chest you pointed out.

Mithril rbdyck. Moar Achievements Redux Sonicjumper. Moar Stuff Mod Viktorrr Mob Amputation iChun. Mob Dismemberment iChun. Mob Spawn Controls Davidee. Mob Talker SCMowns. Allows users to create visual novel styled adventure games in Minecraft, using a newly developed scripting language called MobTalkerScript. Mo' Creatures DrZhark. API mod, kind of like a mod manager, that stops conflicts with mods that alter rendering, recipes, add entities, gui, smeltables or fuel.

Forge has its own version of ModLoader that is backwards compatible with most ModLoader mods. Does your mod need simple, configurable options? Do you not want to edit core Minecraft files to do this? Or did the mod you just download tell you to come here? This mod is right for you. Modular Powersuits MachineMuse. Mo' Foliage Andy Adds about 20 flowers, naturally generated, some are biome specific. All of the flowers have special features. Mo' Food and Crops v3XzZ. Monster Spawn Highlighter Discontinued Lunatrius.

More Bows Mod iDiamondhunter. More Coals MinecraftBuilder More Composite Armor Fnb34st. MoreCrafts absorr. A mod that adds realistic ways to obtain items that can only be found in creative mode. Sponges naturally spawn, mobs can be caught using blank spawn eggs, and many new recipies are added as well.

More Enchantments Mod glideral. Tired of the same Vanilla Enchantments? This mod adds 23 new unique and exciting enchantments. Each offering a unique perk to change the way you play Minecraft! Adds many new types of ways to destroy your enemies, more often than not, involving explosions. Be careful you don't set anything off too close to home! More Fences Mod bobbyjoe2. MoreFood CaveChild. More Furnaces CubeX2. Adds five furnaces to the game.

An iron, a gold, a diamond, an obsidian and a netherrack furnace. More Health Enhanced nohero. Lets you customize how many hearts of HP you begin with, which can be increased later through gaining levels or with heart containers found in dungeon chests. M-Ore Mod Kuuu. More Pipes Mod Zensiert More Pistons Mod MontyPylon. More Player Models Noppes. More Player Models 2 Noppes. Allows the user to customize their in-game player model by changing the scale and shape of each main bodypart, as well as adding other features like chat bubbles, rendering the first tool on your hotbar on your back, and animations such as sitting, dancing, and crawling.

More Potions Mod Clashsoft. More Records Mod Darkhax. Includes various records that can be played in a jukebox. These Records can be found in any naturally spawning chest, This includes dungeon loot, blacksmith chests, and jungle temple chests. More Slicers and Slappers ZombifiedMinecrafter. More Stackables Risugami. More Swords Mod Darkhax.

More Tools Mod Clashsoft. With the recent zombie infiltration the villagers have decided to expand into new territories, including biomes such as Forest, Extreme Hills, Jungle, Taiga, Swamp, and Ice Plains on top of the standard Plains and Desert. Multiplies experience on pick-up. Helpful for those who dislike wasting tons of levels for little to no reason. MorpheusZero's Mods MorpheusZero.

Mo' Zombies coocoo Adds more zombies to the game. Currently there are 13 new zombies with plans for further expansion. Adds in what Minecraft has been missing for years, furniture! It includes over 30 pieces of furniture to decorate your bedroom, kitchen, living room and even your garden!

This mod also has an API which can be used in development of your mods to make them play more nicely alongside it. Multi Crafting Table dmillerw. Multi Mine AtomicStryker. Makes it so you don't have to point nonstop on a Block, never letting go of the mouse button, to finish it off.

You can start mining, pause, walk away, mine another block, come back and finish off the one you started previously. Multi Page Chest CubeX2. Adds a new chest to the game: the Multi Page Chest. This chest can store up to stacks of items. Don't have lacks of space anymore! Allows lists of servers to be loaded from a remote source. Players can also create their own lists. MumbleLink zsawyer. Mushroom Torch Mod Kinyoshi.

Adds two new torches into your game. The Red Mushroom Torch gives off light level at 12 and under, which is perfect for growing mushrooms indoors without having to worry about too much light killing your crop. The Brown Mushroom torch gives off light level at 4 and under, which is supposed to be the best light to grow mushrooms where you can still see. Unfortunately, monsters can still spawn with the use of these torches.

MusicCraft Ktos Music Timer Mod Cycloneblaze. Mutant Creatures thehippomaster And everything nice. These were the ingredients chosen to create the perfect pet creatures. But Professor HippoMaster accidentally added an extra ingredient to the concoction Chemical X! Thus the Mutant Creatures were born! Mystcraft XCompWiz. Mystic Mods oitsjustjose. There are 3 different Mystic mods. Each are optional, but installing all of them will deliver the full experience.

Mystic Ores adds 4 nether ores and 7 overworld ores as well as 1 blastproof glass block into the game, some of which can be used to create some quite impressive tools! Mystic Ruins adds 2 new structures, some overworld ruins which can contain treasure chests, as well as massive underground dungeons that also double as mazes, as you can quite easily get lost in them! Mystic Stones adds 7 new stones to the game, as well as planks, bricks, and cobbled versions of each.

They cannot be uncrafted. MysticRPG oitsjustjose. Myths and Monsters Uno Adds a bunch of new weapons, armor, and items to use against the new, powerful monsters that lurk in the darkness and that are based off of folklore and fictious stories. Naruto C JinRyuu. NEI Addons bdew. NEI Mystcraft Plugin heldplayer. NEI Plugins mistaqur. Nether Eye wuppy This mod adds the Nether Eye to the game. Use it to find your way to a nether fortress. Crafted with ender pearl and magma cream.

Nether Ores power crystals. Ores in the Nether! Coal, diamond, gold, iron, lapis, redstone, tin, copper, emerald, silver, lead, uranium, and nikolite. Non-vanilla ores only spawn if a mod that uses them exists. All nether ores turn into their surface counterparts in a furnace - some like redstone or coal may need to be smacked with a pick or macerated to be made useful. NetherStuffs Rinnsal.

Adds ores and Trees to the Nether and also allows gathering of Soul Energy from mobs to be used in other Machinery. Also adds a torchbow! NetworkAnchor LostCoder. Ninja Mod Udjat No Fire Spread soccerguy3. No Ice Melt soccerguy3. No Infinite Water fishtaco No More Creeperz mjjmjj. NoSlowDown zag Adds a GUI to note blocks to aid in choosing a particular note without having to cycle through all of them.

It arose around the same time as Craft Guide when Alexandria and a few others on the IRC suggested that I merge both Too Many Items and Recipe Book to remove their greatest flaws, ironically too many items, or in the case of recipe book, too many recipies. Too Many Items was great, but the one thing it lacked was an easy way to search and sort your items.

Even if you don't want to use NEI for cheating in items, you will likely feel right at home with the Recipe component of the mod. Nuclear Control Shedar. Allows you to build efficient monitoring and notification system for your nuclear reactor. Obsidia: The Power of Obsidian senpaisubaraki. ObsidiPlates Myrathi.

Adds obsidian and mossy cobblestone pressure plates that output a signal when stood on by a player or an NPC respectively. Includes silent versions of the pressure plates. Ocean Adventures MiBeM. Creates an endless ocean world with beautiful islands, small, big, high and low. An open source add-on mod for ComputerCraft which gives your computers the ability to retrieve information about the area around them. Optifine spx. Adds advanced graphical settings to the video options menu as well as grants the ability to easily use high-definition texture packs.

Also boosts your FPS. Adds blocks and items that convert between different versions of the same ore using the Forge ore dictionary. OreDupeFix agaricus. Unifies output of crafting recipes, furnace recipes, dungeon loot, and IC2 machine recipes to a configurable preferred ore from each mod.

Ores drop Mores 2 Rinnsal. A highly configurable mod that allows you to change how many ingots you'll get from a single ore as well as modify XP gain from mining ores. Also allows you to configure the harvest level of pickaxes i. You could configure it so that you only need a stone pickaxe to mine gold. Optifine Required:See bit. Also, it fixes some z-fighting obsidian and glass textures conflicting with the bottom of the block. OverTheEdge HeshamMeneisi. Pacman Arcade Formulayeti.

Paintball lKinx. Adds a few new items to the game: a remote, full sets of armor, scanners, insta-bases, flags, pistols, shotguns, assault rifles, snipers, launchers, grenades, claymores, c4, pellets, pods, armor racks, weapon racks, med kits, and paintbrushes in all the colors of the rainbow! Painter's Flower Pot Mineshopper. PaintGun Mod rich A mod that will add realistic dinosaurs into your game, being as scientifically accurate as possible.

Pam Hates Snow MatrexsVigil. Gets rid of all snowy biomes! As such, it adds in several new recipes to allow you to make snow, pine trees, etc. Pandora's Box Ivorius. Adds a new Item, the Pandora's box. It is now craftable, and spawns in dungeons, or you can just cheat it in if you want some Pet Bat AtomicStryker.

Petroleum Generator DrCeph. Pfaeff's Mod Pfaeff. Pig Grinder iChun. Pixelmon epicSplashBattle. Pixel Pack LacheeDomain. Ever wanted to make a peace of pixel art in Minecraft, but the default texture pack is not the right colours? Hate it when you edit the texture pack to suit, then you try it with the original texture and your art looks terrible?

Well this is the mod for you! PlasmaCraft Malkierian. Player API Divisor. Player Heads FatherToast. Plugins for Forestry 2 denoflions. Universal Forge Required Forestry denLib. Poop Tominator1. Portable Teleporter Fnb34st. Portal Gates deenkayros. PortalGun iChun. Power Converters power crystals. It's here! Finally, a way to wrangle all those power systems into one central location. PowerCraft MightyPork. Adds much content to the game in the form of decoration, storage, laser lights, logic, machines, chunker loaders, teleporters, transport,and others.

PowerCrystals Core Dependency power crystals. PowerIron Stolzele Power Swords Mod chri60a1. Precious Gems Mod Phobophobe. PrimitiveCraft Kitteh Primitive Mobs Daveyx0. Adds numerous new mobs into your Minecraft world. However unlike some mods out there, this mod adds mobs which are familar to the regular Minecraft player. These mobs look like vanilla features however they add completely new features and behaviour which can benefit the player or the opposite.

Before you start checking them out remember: You don't have to like them all, as mobs can be turned off. Prometheus Ri5ux. Pumpkin-less Snow Golem wuppy QuantumPack LostCoder. RadarBro Cali Alec. Railcraft CovertJaguar. Features a fully fleshed out tech tree, with great effort gone into providing a balanced gameplay based around rails and their creation. Rancraft Penguins immediately. Adds fifteen different species of penguins to your world, along with penguin tools, penguin weapons, and penguin armor with penguin powers.

Random Additions CreativeMD. As the mod name suggests, the mod got its name after the author s just decided to add a load of random stuff in. RealLan RealLan. Adds more to your LAN server. Recipe Book Risugami. This item, when used, opens up a GUI of every recipe that can be done. The items can not be touched, but you can read the tool tips. Left click moves to next recipe. Right click moves to previous recipe.

If you need a version for Forge, see CraftGuide. Recipe Remover ShadwDrgn.