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Many scholars have argued that the online component, a new situational as well as structural characteristic of many gambling products, has transformed the interaction between gamblers and gambling, altering the why, how, where, and when of gambling-related harm e.
Over the past decade, a number of studies have examined the composition and characteristics of sports bettors. Many of these studies are country-specific, with great preponderance of research coming from Australia Deans et al. Cross-sectional studies of Australian sports bettors have identified risk factors for gambling problems such as being male, young, never married, living alone or in a group household, and with higher level education Hing et al.
Also, Australian sports bettors with a language other than English as their mother tongue are more likely to engage in problem betting Hing et al. Australian sports bettors prefer simpler bets in which the odds are easier to estimate, particularly when placing bets for a winner. Conversely, bets on multiple events i.
Research has also indicated that the placing of bets during a sports event i. Research into online sports betting, as opposed to more traditional forms of offline betting, suggests that online sports bettors perceive their gambling as more determined by their own skills, knowledge, and analysis and less by chance or luck Gordon et al.
In several studies utilizing a dataset provided by the gaming operator bwin of almost 50, European gamblers, researchers identified some distinguishing characteristics concerning sports bettors. Those who bet in-play on sports as opposed to those who bet before matches were categorized more often as heavily involved gamblers LaBrie et al.
The prototypical bettor was a year-old male who bet for longer periods of time than females. Because the studies on bwin data were conducted a posteriori, they did not include a measure for problem gambling and resorted to proxy measures to ascertain its incidence. More importantly, live in-play betting was one of the most recurrent characteristics of problem gamblers, even after controlling for gambling participation and gambling type LaPlante et al.
In the USA, online sports betting is only fully legal in a small number of states. Fantasy gaming has arguably covered for much of the market opportunities left unexplored by bookmakers. This has ignited a big national debate concerning the categorization of fantasy sports as skill-based games or luck-based gambling Griffiths ; Rose Research with fantasy sports players demonstrated that these consumers share with gamblers many behavioral similarities Dwyer et al.
Another study found examining a sample of American college students from that In another study of college students participating in fantasy sports, it was found that athletes were more likely to experience gambling-related harm than non-athlete students Martin et al. These data were collected before the popularization of online gambling in Europe. This gambling method represents a big departure from traditional forms of betting such as football pools, in which the structural characteristics of the game e.
Recent research analyzing gambling disorder patients under treatment in a Barcelona area hospital in Spain compared online to offline sports bettors. This study seeks to address the lack of research concerning the association between new structural characteristics specifically impacting on sports betting behavior and absent from other gambling types and the gambling severity that bettors experience.
More specifically, the present study explores demographic and behavioral betting factors utilizing a Spanish cohort of sports bettors. The aim of the study was to identify the influence of new online betting structural characteristics and examine if problem gambling severity varied across such new features. Five features are examined here: i live in-play betting; ii cash out feature use as example of in-play betting in-built features ; iii fantasy sports gaming; iv location of betting; and v device or platform used to make bets.
Besides these, other covariates are controlled, including discussing bets before bets, time devoted to betting, as well as demographic data. A market research company contacted around people from their panel of Spanish residents, who had reported in previous unrelated market surveys that they had previously bet on sports events. These individuals were emailed by the company in March asking them to participate in an online survey. Participants received a message informing them about the anonymity and confidentiality of their data and the identification of the universities carrying out the research.
The message let them know that the survey related to sports betting but no further information was provided at this point. However, of them did not answered affirmatively to the filter question i. After cleaning the data for incomplete cases, the final sample comprised sports bettors who had gambled on sports events during the previous year.
The present authors did not set any limits or quotas to the market research company as to the constituency of the sample beyond the filter question. Participants who filled the questionnaire, including those who dropped out prematurely, received points according to the remuneration criteria set by the recruiting company, which could later be exchanged for gifts. This instrument is a self-administered abbreviated version of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index , adequate for screening gambling severity among online participants Gainsbury et al.
The method has been previously used for assessing problem gambling levels among subsets of sports bettors Hing et al. Participants were asked to assess the frequency of their engagement in a number of behaviors in relation to their betting activity. Questions included how often they used the cash out feature, the frequency of their in-play betting as opposed to pre-game betting, and how often they had participated in fantasy sports games this item did not discriminate between free or for money fantasy gaming, nor daily or season-long participation.
Such questions were designed to investigate new behavioral characteristics of sports betting associated with the adoption and popularization of online betting that had been less studied in previous research concerning betting behavior. Other behaviors were also assessed e. Additionally, participants were surveyed about their preferred location to bet on sports and their preferred device or platform of choice to bet.
Both location and device were expected to be influenced by the predominance of online gambling among European bettors. Four types of gambler were created on the basis of PGSI scores i. PGSI scores were skewed, and therefore non-parametric tests were favored in analysis of the data. Mann—Whitney U test was used for nominal binary independent variables e.
In the cases where the independent and dependent variables were nominal i. Table 1 summarizes the main socio-economic results from the sample of sports bettors categorized according to their gambling severity group. Participants had a mean age of The mean score for PGSI as ratio variable was 3.
The sample comprised males In fact, females showed a higher mean rank In terms of occupation, 84 were students Regarding cohabitation, Those who reported being students had higher percentages than expected of low, moderate, and problem gambling incidence, while those unemployed were underrepresented among all risk categories including problem gamblers.
Unlike socio-economic data, the use of new structural characteristics greatly varied among individuals from different gambling severity groups. Table 2 shows the main findings for these variables. Enjoying the watching of games more when a bet is in place also showed statistically significant differences between groups. Having participated in fantasy sports during the last year i.
The results showed that out of sports bettors The proportion was only slightly higher for the low-risk problem gambling group 90 out of ; Nearly all sports bettors in the problem gambling category had engaged in fantasy gaming out of ; There was no clear pattern of locations preferred by bettors for gambling.
Most bettors across every gambling severity category favored their home as their place of choice for betting The workplace was only chosen by 2. However, there were some indications that problem gamblers bet from work more often than other groups, because they represent in the current sample Approximately one in seven of bettors Concerning the devices or platforms used to gamble, online gambling was far more prevalent than offline gambling.
The majority of bettors Online betting was reported by Consequently, the non-problem gambler category was overrepresented in the offline betting condition, amounting to In terms of mobile phone gambling, problem gamblers reported the highest preference for this method among any other group This means that, within-group, The study found that almost two-thirds of the sports bettors in the sample These results align reasonably well with recent Spanish prevalence studies. The most recent study—also using the PGSI—indicated a 0.
These numbers, in the context of Spain in , translate into 96, individuals suffering moderate-risk and about , experiencing problems with online gambling. A previous study from i. The prevalence rate of pathological gambling was reported to be The results also reflected a high prevalence of problem gambling among female bettors, showing that These results differ from those reported for an Australian sample of sports bettors in which problem gambling rates for males were significantly higher than for women Hing et al.
The findings in the present study also contradict the traditional gender imbalance found in most online gambling studies Wood and Williams but not in the context of sports betting in particular, in which previous research with online gamblers playing on the bwin website reported non-significant differences between women and men LaBrie et al. Despite the fact that the results of the present study concerning gender and problem gambling did not have statistical significance, the large proportion of female bettors in the problem gambling category Also, results from this sample on cohabitation and gambling severity showed greater risk for those living with their partner, which was similarly associated with being employed and therefore having a steady source of income.
These results are partially at odds with previous studies in Spain examining risk factors among problem gamblers, which identified being single or divorced as the most risky cohabitation status DGOJ b. Devoting time to gambling and discussing gambling-related topics was found to be associated with gambling severity. More importantly, in-play betting was especially associated with those being categorized as problem gamblers.
Although higher gambling participation, and thus time devotion and conversation about it, is expected to be found among those with gambling problems, this does not explain why problem gamblers bet more heavily during games as opposed to before the games commenced.
Problem gamblers are expected to gamble more in any given circumstance, including before and also during matches. However, the proportion of their gambling that they devote to in-play betting should be irrespective of their gambling participation and constant if compared to other individuals with lower PGSI scores. This is not the case in the present study. One interpretation could be that bettors who experience more problems with gambling also feel more inclined to consume impulsive, less planned, and immediate forms of gambling such as in-play betting, in which the bet cycles are brief iGaming Business and the time elapsed since the placement of the bet until the reward or lack thereof is also shorter Griffiths and Auer ; Lamont et al.
The causal link between problem gambling and the use of products allowing immediate gambling rewards cannot be determined in a correlational study such as the present one. Nevertheless, the data suggest further research regarding the detrimental impact that structural characteristics of betting products might have on individuals developing gambling problems Griffiths ; Parke and Griffiths The study also demonstrates, in the same vein as others carried out recently Dwyer et al.
Engagement in fantasy sports and sports betting overlap greatly in the sample studied here, with greater involvement in fantasy games correlating to greater gambling problems. Engaging in fantasy gaming and watching live sports have been previously found to be associated Drayer et al.
The interaction in this study between a number of sports-related variables such as watching live sports, in-play betting, and fantasy and gambling involvement suggests that sports fandom might be playing a role in the cross-fertilization of different activities that are not inherently linked to sports.
This adds to the idea that those sports fans with stronger and deeper ties to sport e. Despite all gambling severity groups reporting clear online gambling preference over offline alternatives, mobile phone betting distribution between gambling severity groups showed much higher prevalence among those with gambling problems.
Similarly, those not experiencing gambling-related problems favored betting in offline gambling venues as their preferred gambling form. Consequently, although it is likely that problem gamblers bet more than any other group both offline and online, and that they add new gambling forms as their condition worsens, their greater overall gambling activity cannot explain why they prefer betting via mobile phone. One way of interpreting this finding, in line with the in-play betting results, is that mobile betting allows for more instantaneous gambling, providing immediate universal access to betting, and simplifying betting procedures by implementing one-touch options or similar Griffiths ; Deans et al.
Correspondingly, it has been noted that bookmakers promote mobile betting over other forms of gambling in their advertisements Lopez-Gonzalez et al. The present study is not without its limitations. The online sample is arguably overrepresentative of online gamblers and, in general, gamblers more familiarized with internet use. Another limitation has to do with the cross-sectional design of the study, which does not allow for clear causal implications between the variables, despite the significant differences found between the four different gambling severity groups.
Finally, it is also possible that, among the individuals who received the survey request, those who exhibited a greater degree of involvement in betting activities were more interested in responding to the survey, and self-selected more often, resulting in a larger proportion of problem gamblers in the sample.
Other limitations include the use of self-report data which are known to be subject to established biases such as social desirability and memory recall. The present study is the first to examine a Spanish sample of sports bettors as a specific type of gamblers and explore their gambling in relation to sports betting-specific internet-based behaviors. Although the analyzed sample is not representative of the entire gambling population of the country, it has shown preliminary evidence that those engaging in sports betting could be suffering gambling-related problems in greater proportion than problem gambling prevalence studies typically suggest.
Sports problem gamblers who engage in mobile betting appear to have become a distinctive attribute of their gambling behavior. Industry reports indicate that sports betting is the most popular form of online gambling in Europe, with continuous growth over the last decade European Gaming and Betting Association With such rise of online betting participation, the present study highlights the new issues that are surfacing, particularly concerning the potentially detrimental effects of the interaction between sports viewing, live betting, and fantasy gaming.
Regulation should be cognisant, especially considering the emotionally saturated context that sport identification generally entails as opposed to any other form of gambling, of the challenges of a market that encourages live rapid decision-making on events in which bettors are sentimentally partial. Heuristic and analytic processing in online sports betting. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31 2 , — Deans, E. Creating symbolic cultures of consumption: an analysis of the content of sports wagering advertisements in Australia.
BMC Public Health, 16 1 , I can sit on the beach and punt through my mobile phone: the influence of physical and online environments on the gambling risk behaviours of young men. Social Science Medicine, , — article. Google Scholar. Datos del mercado de juego online. Drayer, J. The effects of fantasy football participation on NFL consumption: a qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review, 13 2 , — Dwyer, B. Daily fantasy football and self-reported problem behavior in the United States.
Journal of Gambling Studies , 1— How do online sports gambling disorder patients compare with land-based patients?. Journal of Behavioral Addictions , 1—9. Epub ahead of print. Market reality. Ferris, J. The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: final report.
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Gainsbury, S. AGRC discussion paper on interactive gambling. Unlike other games of chance, these bets are based on the fact that the sport—and its results—is independent of the randomness of such games.
However, the gambler interacts with a broader range of elements of psychosocial importance including sporting randomness, sporting team identity, television visualization of sports i. As a result, several European jurisdictions have banned or reduced live betting due to its proven addiction [ 22 , 23 ]. Furthermore, countries such as the United Kingdom have banned the use of credit cards exclusively for online platforms, precisely to try to reduce the damage, both economic and personal, caused by live betting [ 24 ].
However, according to the World Health Organization WHO , gambling disorder is categorized as a disorder due to addictive behaviors associated with distress or impairment in the International Classification of Diseases ICD in With the legalization of most of the games of chance in Spain in , the adverse effects and addictive behaviors have been constant.
On the other hand, concerning the traditional pre-game bets, they have increased the live bets, that is, those made when the event has already started. For the online gaming market in Spain, the gross gaming revenue GGR , the amount dedicated to participation in the game deducting the bonuses and prizes paid by the operator to the participants was million euros in , which represents an increase of The Spanish bet almost million euros in compared to the million euros in The betting market accounts for The preference for this last modality is reflected in the tendency shown by the figures played by the Spanish in the last years: in conventional sports bets, it has gone from million euros in to in , however, live sports bets have grown from 39,, euros in , to 4,,, euros in [ 29 ].
Likewise, advertising accounts for Some of the most widely used advertising formats for sports betting operators are adverts embedded in match commentary and commercial breaks on radio and television [ 30 ]. The media and its contents significantly impact our daily lives, especially on vulnerable populations such as children and adolescents, who are in a vital stage of change and shape their own identity. Given the potential risk of exposure to problematic content such as drug consumption or dangerous attitudes regarding health, there have been many scientific community contributions.
However, most of them deal with alcohol in audiovisual media, especially in soap operas and movies. Pendleton, Smith, and Roberts [ 31 ] analyzed 50 British television programs in , showing that three-quarters of the programming included visual or verbal references to alcoholic beverages, which on average meant one reference to this type of product every 6.
These two studies claim that displaying these behaviors naturally, especially by young prescribers, tends to normalize conduct without understanding the adverse health effects that indiscriminate consumption can generate. In the same spirit, Mathios et al. Russell, Russell, and Grube [ 34 ] agreed with this and analyzed, on one hand, the messages and appearances of alcoholic beverages in the American series The O.
This research showed that despite repeated consumption in the television series, viewers were more receptive to the positive messages of the moderation of consumption. However, van Hoof, from Jong and Gossett [ 36 ], in an experimental study with adolescents, showed that exposure to alcohol consumption in fictional programming such as soap operas revealed a negative attitude of the participants toward its consumption, although in the case of advertising for alcoholic beverages, the opposite happens: it encourages consumption and increases attitudes toward unhealthy consumption behaviors.
The relationship between the media and society has always been problematic in two areas. First, the media control and influence society through priming, agenda-setting, framing, and advertising, according to their commercial and political interests, while, second, the enormous changes and dynamics of information technologies make media standards and regulations obsolete very quickly [ 37 , 38 ].
Thus, the media, like other types of organizations, are not exempt from committing faults such as fraud, theft, misinformation, broken promises, and broken law regulations [ 39 ], which generally results in a lack of social trust toward media corporations, even though many of them invest in public relations strategies [ 40 ].
This distrust is increasing in the current times as media companies have been growing gradually, and even their ownership has been concentrated in giant international empires whose financial and ownership structures are opaque in the light of society [ 41 ]. Therefore, responsibility has to do with compliance with appropriate conduct, national and international legislation, ethical standards of procedures, and accountability [ 43 ].
Of course, these changes occur at different rates in various European countries, although the trend of regulation and accountability is the most prevalent. Despite the many benefits that McQuail [ 45 ] found in professional responsibility and media self-regulation, mainly because it guarantees a greater degree of freedom, under the current reality, the interests of media owners, shareholders, and advertisers are imposed, so it is common to observe illegal and unethical practices in media content such as advertising for high alcohol and betting at restricted times.
This raised the initial research question of the study RQ0 : Does the radio media in Spain comply with the legislation and legal restrictions on the broadcasting of advertising for high alcoholic beverages and sports betting? In fact, according to the results of the study by [ 46 ], carried out in 14 European countries on journalists, the effectiveness of self-regulation practices can be questioned—except for Finland and Switzerland—with the internal rules of the journalistic enterprise being the most important, followed by legal regulations.
Unlike the United States, where the media are more sensitive to media accountability, in Europe, self-regulation in advertising is traditionally important [ 48 , 49 ], allowing the European Commission to regulate these policies freely. Other studies support that some European countries such as Germany, Finland, and the Netherlands follow a correct model of accountability [ 50 , 51 ] within a consensual political system that has generated a strong tradition of public service media.
For their side, the advertisers are the first ones responsible before the audience of all their commercial communication, understanding that they are the ones who define and approve the contents of the ads, the message, their codes, the choice of the radio station, and the time of the broadcast [ 52 ].
The development of malpractices of social responsibility by advertisers in the media results in medium- and long-term damage to the perception, image, and reputation that the stakeholders have of their associated brands [ 53 , 54 ], so the interested parties usually demand responsible advertising following the social interests and needs. However, few precedents have linked alcohol and gambling advertising with a special focus on minors and the protected time slot despite the problems above-mentioned.
Thomas et al. On the other hand, [ 20 ] found that betting and risk behaviors such as consuming alcohol were associated and also that betting advertising aligns with drinking alcohol and significantly associates emotionally charged sporting situations such as watching live games or celebrating goals with alcohol [ 26 , 56 ].
In the previous studies analyzed, those of an experimental nature predominate, and they have tended to focus on television media. However, no studies have been found that have linked the advertising of high-grade alcoholic beverages and betting on the radio. In this sense, the main objective of this research was to compare the presence of advertising on the radio of two products that represent harmful behaviors for health gambling and high alcoholic beverages advertising and to verify if the media and advertisers complied with the schedule of the protection of minors regarding the limitation of broadcasting this type of advertising.
In Spain, there is no specific legislation regulating the advertising of high-grade drinks or online betting. However, Section 3 of the aforementioned Article 18, which refers to commercial communications prohibited in any form, generally forbids commercial communications that encourage behavior that is harmful to health. This limitation affects both the consumption of high-grade drinks and betting, which are promoted by advertising these types of products.
Likewise, the limitation to broadcast advertising of high-grade beverages regarding their consumption represents a potential health risk. Therefore, it is extended and applicable to the radio and not only to television, as explicitly stated in the paragraph above-mentioned. Previous administrative sanctions [ 57 ] indicate that the general limitations on both radio and television must be understood as applicable to alcoholic beverage advertising, regardless of its alcohol content.
In this sense, although the recipients of spirits drinks and betting advertising in full-service radio stations are adults, this law seeks to protect minors to prevent them from listening to advertising that could pose a risk in the formation of false perceptions about the reality of the consumption of these types of products. These legal parameters and the general objective of the investigation led to the following research questions RQ :. The methodology chosen to develop this work followed a quantitative approach based on content analysis, enabling the objective and systematic content description [ 58 ] of all radio spots and mentions broadcast throughout in Spain.
The selection of the stations followed two criteria: national coverage and Spanish-language broadcasting. Another methodological decision was to differentiate the analysis according to the two most frequent advertising formats in Spanish radio, but with significant differences regarding their broadcast and characteristics: 1 radio spots were defined as a pre-recorded message between 20 and 30 s long broadcast during a commercial break and separated from the programming so listeners can distinguish between advertising and editorial contents; and 2 radio mentions were advertisements read live by the presenters, team, or co-workers of programs embedded within the programming, usually with an absence of content separation lines or sonic triggers that would warn listeners of its commercial nature.
Thus, this advertising format involves some ethical concerns. The final corpus was comprised of a total of radio messages distributed as follows: radio spots and radio mentions. Type of product: 1 High alcohol beverages: brandy, gin, rum, vodka, whisky, other liquors; 2 Betting: online betting, sports betting.
The complete analysis and coding process were carried out by two trained coders, codified according to the variables and their attributes. The variables studied were mostly of a structural nature; therefore, their codification did not require an intersubjective interpretation. To solve this detected divergence, a third work session was made. The few discrepancies were based on codification errors, and not on interpretation ones.
After evaluating the cases, the final coding was decided by the two coders. The analysis results linked the variables that articulated the research questions from the set of all radio spots and radio mentions broadcast during on high-grade alcoholic beverages and online and sports betting , with a total of advertisements analyzed.
Table 1 shows that advertising referring to bets presented a frequency four times higher than that of alcoholic beverages This distribution—always favorable to betting advertising—had more relevance in Cadena Ser. However, Cadena Cope broadcasted more spirits drinks advertising with Finally, Onda Cero broadcasted The results showed some very significant particularities.
As previously mentioned, As shown in Table 2 , the latter accounted for Therefore, radio spots obtained a proportion of spirits drinks advertising that was much higher than the relative weight they represented in the corpus analyzed. A total of In contrast, RQ3 aimed to explore the presence of this type of advertising broadcasts and the schedules to protect minors established in Spanish legislation. Table 3 provides an answer to this question by offering an initial clarifying key figure: These data show the possible exposure of minors to a type of advertising that encourages consumption typologies that are potentially dangerous for their health.
Without a doubt, all three had remarkably high percentages. For this purpose, we carried out a residual analysis. Table 4 highlights the particular intensity of the advertising broadcasts of spirits drinks and betting radio spots on Cadena Cope in the protected time zone. A statistical residue of 4. These data are entirely consistent with the frequency distribution percentages. As shown in Table 4 , The analysis referring to the radio mention format is shown in Table 5 , highlighting the particular relevance of the Cadena Cope broadcasts in the protected time-slot.
A statistical residue of 7. Likewise, Cadena Cope accumulated These data show that the main radio stations in Spain broadcast advertising for high alcoholic beverages and sports betting, mainly through the format of mentions, and did not respect the legal limitations established by the schedule for the protection of minors.
The research conducted compared the behavior of advertisers of products whose consumption may represent a risk to health and the radio media regarding respecting the schedule of the protection of minors that is subject to regulation.
This restriction aims to prevent children and young people from being reached by advertisements that normalize high alcohol content consumption and betting. Alcohol is a drug considered legal, whose abuse leads to addiction, while gambling is a behavior considered addictive, recently cataloged by the WHO. The results of the analysis showed a media reality that deserves deep reflection.
First, the high presence of betting advertising compared to alcohol, which was eight out of It is true that traditionally and for a long time, high alcoholic beverages have suffered from a more significant restriction on sales and advertising regulated by law and that betting has been increasing its presence in the media over time, and advertisers have also increased their income, since to date, there are no specific laws regulating this type of commercial communication in Spain or in Europe.
Given the consequences that most countries show after abusive behavior that leads to addiction in the adult population and the youngest, many countries are already developing laws that limit this type of advertising, especially on television. In Spain, the approval of a law on regulating the communication of sports bets in audiovisual media i.
This project poses severe restrictions both concerning the content and broadcast of such advertisements. On the other hand, the three analyzed stations broadcast a very similar percentage of spirits drinks and betting advertising. However, it is worth noting that nine out of every 10 advertisements in these two product categories broadcast in on Spanish radio were mentions i.
The importance of these data lies in the fact that the listener is prevented from avoiding the advertisement if they do not want to listen to it. In this sense, radio mentions are the predominant format in betting advertising and implies important ethical considerations for the journalists who collaborate in its realization [ 62 ] as well as the questionable social responsibility of the medium toward its audience [ 43 ].
It is essential to point out the high impact that sports broadcasts had on the study and the biases associated with radio broadcasts. For some years now, the enormous investments in television rights made by the big operators have forced an extension of the days and time slots in which sports events are broadcast, especially soccer.
This reality has forced radio stations to extend their sports broadcasts over entire days, especially on weekends. Both national and international competitions are affected by this extensive sports broadcasting model, which has a significant impact not only on the type of advertising that is broadcast, but also on its format, with the mentions being the most benefited format. It is a much more dynamic format than the traditional commercials, and it fits much better in radio productions that can reach up to 16 h of uninterrupted broadcasting.
Although the objective of this research was not to analyze the effects that exposure to this type of message had on the audience, but to show that the self-regulation of the media in terms of compliance with their legal and ethical obligations could generate continuous infringements that can affect the development and health of particularly vulnerable populations such as children and adolescents, it is noted, in line with the research findings of van Hoof, de Jong, and Gossett [ 36 ], that alcohol advertising encourages audience attitudes toward non-moderate consumption, so its regulation and enforcement should be a public health issue.
Previous studies have questioned the effectiveness of advertising self-regulation systems in general and in Spain [ 63 ], demanding greater restrictions in the vast majority of media to prevent the exposure of young people to this type of advertising [ 55 ]. Even journalists themselves have called for more effective co-regulation [ 46 ]. In any case, the public administration should firmly consider a complete prohibition of spirits drinks advertising as demanded by the vast majority of Spanish people [ 2 ] and advertising of these types of products should have similar limitations to those of tobacco.
Above all, there is an urgent need for common regulations in the European environment and internationally, given that communications are now global and any radio or television broadcast can be accessed and received in any country in the world at the same time that it is being broadcast.
There is no point in having severe limitations in one country and lax ones when Internet borders have disappeared for audiovisual communication. Moreover, if we focus on sports broadcasting, the audiences for certain matches reach millions worldwide.
Another limitation is that the analysis was not disaggregated by product type, and it could be of interest to know which spirits drinks and betting type predominate at this type of station. Additionally, given the growing investment in sports betting [ 20 ], future work should focus on this type of advertising, especially on the radio and television during the transmission of sports programs. The main focus of this paper was on the regulation of child protection schedules.
Future studies may also complete the analysis with other legislative restrictions on advertising these types of products. Likewise, it would be interesting to compare the data obtained in this work with analyses in other media such as television or magazines where the target can also be segmented. As our research focused on a national legislative rule that is still a transposition of a European directive, it would also be interesting to analyze the study object from its application in other European countries.
The advertising of alcoholic beverages, and especially sports betting, takes on a role that has never been known before, entering into serious contradiction with the current legislation. It is precisely the need to finance increasingly expensive radio productions, for more and more hours, which explains the broadcasting of this type of advertising in unauthorized time slots, especially on weekends. Nevertheless, even minors and young people can be impacted by undesirable advertising, as previous studies have shown [ 25 , 55 ].
This exposure to advertising of these types of products can generate false expectations and incorrectly educate them given the associations with which advertising presents the consumption of spirits drinks and betting. Conceptualization, S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Nov Find articles by Clara Muela-Molina. Luis M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 18; Accepted Nov Keywords: radio mentions, radio advertisement, media responsibility, betting advertisement, alcohol advertisement, health communication, media self-control, media regulations, protected time-slots, consumer behavior.
Introduction 1. Online Gambling as an Addictive Behavior Nowadays, gambling has become an important social demand that influences citizens [ 15 ], being the trigger of addiction problems such as ludopathy and domestic economic problems.
You can get some games wrong but still make profit because of the high odds. In the following paragraph we want to give you some examples and show you how the betting concept of system bets works and how you can calculate your winnings. Since there are almost endless possibilities for system bets like 2 out of 3, 4 out of 5, 7 out of 10, we focused on only 2 of the best-established systems.
That brings us to the following outcome:. Bet 1: Win Frankfurt 2. Bet 2: Win Frankfurt 2. If we had 10 Euro stake at each bet, so all in all 30 Euro, our winnings would be 42 Euro 10 x 2. This is another example of a common system betting strategy. In this case it is most profitable to bet on high risk games.
You can bet on total underdogs and still, with a little bit of luck, make good money. You bet on Wins of Freiburg Odd 3. These are your System Bets:. A stake of 10 Euro on each bet would mean a 60 Euro overall stake. If it happens to Win Freiburg and Bremen you win Bet 1, which would yield If Schalke takes home the 3 points as well you would win Bet 1, Bet 2 and Bet 4 and your winnings would be On the one hand, since you minimize your risk, your chances of winning rise by a lot.
On the other hand this strategy is only lucrative if the quotas are high and the stake is good enough. But with a little bit of fortune and a good guess of underdog wins you can rake in some good cash. You would include a leg that you are very sure to happen. The advantage is that you can enhance your overall odd at your system bet. When you deal with Doc's Sports Service, you're dealing with a recognized leader and trusted name in the sports handicapping industry.
Maintaining a small operation keeps us closely in touch with our customers' needs. We monitor our competition and always make sure we take better care of our clients than any other service. The plain, hard fact is most sports gamblers lose money. And the reason for this is simple: a lack of discipline and money management This is why Doc's Sports was the first to develop a unit system for betting sports almost 50 years ago.
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There's a reason that hard-working adults such as students, professionals, business owners and so many others choose Doc's Sports Service to deliver them superior sports betting advice year after year. It's because we too are hard working professionals who accept only the best, and we know how to take care of our clients.
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The plain, hard fact is on each bet would mean. In this case tmart betting line is the best strategy is when a 60 Euro overall stake. Maintaining a small operation keeps underdogs and still, with a better care of our clients. Bet sports betting systems explained in spanish Win Frankfurt 2. The advantage is that you of fortune and a good at your system bet. Many services now use a a common system betting strategy. And the reason for this Freiburg and Bremen you win discipline and money management This is why Doc's Sports was the first to develop a would win Bet 1, Bet 2 and Bet 4 and the one hand, since you minimize your risk, your chances. We know from shopping our strategy is only lucrative if little bit of luck, make. We pride ourselves on honesty, us closely in touch with. As with many things in life, experience plays a big.Sports betting is the activity of predicting sports results and placing a wager on the outcome. While all sports wagers are by definition on future events, bets listed as "futures" generally have a long-term club occupying any of the top eight levels of the men's league system (the Premier League, English Football League. The main difference between system bets and multi (parlay) bets is that you can win a system bet even if not all your picks are correct. For example, in the case. Gambling is defined as any activity in which money or economically valuable state-wide sports and horse betting, and to the National Organisation of the and participants;; standardisation of gambling technical systems;.